Measurement is defined as a process in which a numerical index is assigned to the characteristics or the attributes

Measurement is defined as a process in which a numerical index is assigned to the characteristics or the attributes.it is also known as the process of quantification of the performance. There are many tools that are used for the purpose of measurement. These tools include tests, homework, checklist, projects and observations.
For example in class a test is given to the students to check their skill or proficiency level and after that those tests are marked with numbers. So in this way we are translating the characteristics into numbers. In the above example the test is the tool and giving numbers is the process of quantification.
Assessment:
Assessment is known as a continuous and ongoing process in which the data is collected about the student learning process. This collected data is then reviewed and improvements are made in the teaching and learning process. Assessment is process oriented which focuses on the process and tells how learning is going and also identifies the areas where improvement is needed. For example teacher observes the student learning and understanding of the topic in the class and give feedback to his student. If a student does not comprehend a concept, then the teacher will change his teaching strategy.
Evaluation:
Evaluation is different from assessment. Evaluation is described as a process in which a judgment is passed at the end of the session to see whether we have achieved our objectives or not. Evaluation is product oriented in nature which means that it tells what has been learned and which skill has been mastered. Evaluation is important for drawing conclusions. For example at end of the academic year we evaluate the performance of the student to see whether student has learned the required skill or not and he is graded accordingly.
Q2: How norm reference assessment is different from criterion reference assessment?

Norm reference assessment:
Norm referenced assessment is a type of assessment in which student performance is compared with other students of the class and then it is determined that whether the student performed better or worse than other students. In norm referenced assessment grades are reported as percentile rankings.
For example in class teacher takes a test and a student score 75 percentile. It means that the student performs better than the 75% of the class. Aptitude tests are mostly norm referenced tests.
Criterion referenced assessment:
Criterion referenced assessment is a type of assessment in which we cannot compare the performance of students with each other. In criterion referenced assessment student’s performance is assessed by comparing it with pre-defined standard. In criterion reference a course is first taught by the teacher in the class and at the end of the class or session teacher takes a test to check the student’s ability to comprehend the concepts. There is pass or fail system in criterion referenced assessment.
For example in Pakistani educational system we followed criterion referenced assessment. We set a criterion of 33%. Anybody who achieves more than 33% marks is considered as pass and those who get less than 33% marks are considered as fail.

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Q3: Compare Bloom’s taxonomy with SOLO taxonomy with respect to division of their levels. Explain with examples.

Bloom’s Taxonomy SOLO Taxonomy
Presented by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 It was presented by Biggs and Collis in 1982
Bloom’s taxonomy has 3 domains
Cognitive
Affective
psychomotor It has main focus on student learning process
Bloom’s Taxonomy has a theory about knowledge Solo Taxonomy is all about teaching and learning process
It has 6 stages of development It has 5 stages of development
• Knowledge
• Comprehension
• Application
• Analysis
• Synthesis
• evaluation • Pre-structural
• Uni-structural
• Multi-structural
• Relational
• Extended abstract
Mostly teachers use this taxonomy to create tests. It is mostly used by teachers for developing lesson plans.
In Bloom’s taxonomy top 3 levels are considered lower level and analysis, synthesis and evaluation is considered as high level of taxonomy. In solo taxonomy pre and uni-structural levels are lowest levels and extended abstract is highest level.

SOLO Taxonomy:
Solo taxonomy has 5 stages of development.
Pre-structural:
Pre-structural is the 1st level of Solo Taxonomy. At this level the child gets the small chunks or bits of information which has no organization that’s why it does not make sense to the child and the child responses in a meaning less way and cannot demonstrate understanding of the information.
Example:
If we ask a question that what is living or non- living thing? Then the child is unable to answer that question because he cannot comprehend the question.

Uni-structural:
2nd level of solo taxonomy is uni-structural. At this level the child is able to understand the concept and make simple connections between the concepts but he can only respond to one relevant aspect.
Example:
For example at this level we can demonstrate the concept of living thing to the child and then we can ask question name any 1 thing which is living?
Multi-structural:
3rd level of solo taxonomy is multi-structural. At this level the child is able to understand multiple aspects of a subject and make connections. At this point the child responds to relevant aspects but these are not related with each other and treated independently.
Example:
For example at this level we can ask question name any 1 thing which is living and name any 1 thing which is non-living.
Relational:
4th level of solo taxonomy is relational. At this level the child is able to understand the components and their significance and contribution to the whole. The components and ideas at this level are well integrated and linked with each other and the child can understand the whole concept by joining the parts.
Example:
At this level teacher can ask a question like write down a comparison between living and non-living things?
Extended abstract:
This is the last level of solo taxonomy. At this level the child is able to make connections beyond the given area. Now the child is able to transfer his understandings and concepts into new domain and able to create new concepts with the help of prior knowledge.
Example:
For example at this level the teacher can ask a question like justify your answer that it is a living or non-living thing according to its features.
Bloom’s Taxonomy:
Bloom’s Taxonomy has 6 stages
Knowledge:
This is the first step of Bloom’s taxonomy. At this stage the child recalls his prior knowledge and concepts. It may include facts and theories.
Example:
For example after reading the story the child is able to answer the following question.
Write down the names of the characters in the story?
Comprehension:
2nd level of Bloom’s taxonomy is comprehension. At this level the child is able to understand the meaning of the material and able to interpret the material in his own words.
Example:
In 2nd level the question will be like
Describe the story in your own words?
Application:
The 3rd level of Bloom’s taxonomy is application. At this level the child is able to use the previously learned concepts into new situations.
Example:
At third level question will be like, explain what would you do in the situation which was faced by the character in the story?
Analysis:
This is the 4th level of Bloom’s taxonomy. At this level the child is able to understand the concepts by breaking it down into small components, in this way he can easily analyze the relationship between components.
Example:
After reading the story describe which part of the story was funniest?
Synthesis:
This is the 5th level of Bloom’s taxonomy. At this level the child synthesize or collect the components of the concepts to form some new information.
Example:
At this level the question may be asked like that. By using your imagination draw the events of the story.
Evaluation:
This is the 6th and the last level of Bloom’s taxonomy. At this level the child is able to critically evaluate the concepts and materials and take decisions and valuable judgments
Example:
Question at last level will be like. Compare the 2 leading characters of the story and describe which one was better than other? Also give reasons.

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