Making Aid Work for basic education
Making Aid Work for basic education: Evidence from the Philippines` 4Ps Programme in Quezon City
A Thesis Proposal Presented to the
Faculty of International Studies Department
De La Salle University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the
Master of International Studies
PARRAS, Maria Patricia U.
Submitted to: Dr. Dennis Trinidad
Table of Contents
Chapter I: Introduction
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature
Education and Development
Education as a Priority in funding
Aid interventions in the past
A. Aid Effectiveness in education
CHAPTER III. Methodology
Data Collection Procedure
Population and Sampling
Chapter IV: Results and Discussions
Chapter V: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This study would not be possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.
First and foremost, our utmost gratitude to all our interviewees ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..(insert names) …………… who made time for us despite their schedules.
The researcher also owe our deepest gratitude to Professor ___________ for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, immense knowledge and unfailing support as the thesis adviser.
The researcher also wish to thank _____________________________________ for their inputs as mentor and editor.
The researcher would also like to thank ______________________________ for sharing his steadfast encouragement to complete this study.
Last but not the least, the researcher would like to thank her family whose continued guidance and support is irrevocable and the one above all of us, the omnipresent God, for answering prayers and giving strength to plod on despite the hardships and challenges the researcher encountered during thesis writing, thank you so much Dear Lord.
Abstract (insert here)
Keywords: Basic education, aid effectiveness, conditional cash transfer
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Poverty remains a potent crux that perpetuates out-of-school and drop-outs children. Some children are forced to drop out of school to seek employment outside their homes in order to augment their household income as well as to ensure their survival. The United Nation`s 2013 data confirms that there is a rising concern that all children- esp. children from low income households, girls, and minorities- are not afforded with equal educational opportunities. Poverty is defined in two ways: one is seen as a multi-dimensional concept, and the lack of education is poverty itself. Second is associated to monetary dimension.
Education has been found to contribute to development directly because of its relevance to the well-being and freedom of people, indirectly through influencing social change, and indirectly through economic production. The model of education as human capital is seen as a vital instrument for reducing poverty. In other words, investing in education leads to the formation of human capital, which is an important factor for development. The stock of skills and knowledge enables individuals to become economically productive. Whereas in a human development approach, it does not view education as a means of development, but as development itself, the lack of education is not just a cause of poverty, but poverty itself. Reducing poverty is highly unlikely not unless knowledge, capabilities, and skills are extended to the marginalized sector of the society.
Several organizations have found statistical support to the claim that education is a key to the development of individuals, households, communities, and societies. This has been justified by the UNESCO`s report showing a correlation between education and poverty: better educated people generates more money; better quality education improves local economies, which in turn increases income; and thirdly, education provides other social benefits which helps reduce poverty such as low mortality rates and fertility, and empowerment of women in the workforce. Interestingly, the model of education as human capital continues to be a central concept of development and education analysis and a central impetus for investing in education.
Foreign aid emerged with the introduction of the Marshall Plan by the US to support the reconstruction of European countries. This plan led to the development of the World Bank, the IMF, and the United Nations. Aid continued to place priority on infrastructure in areas of the world where there is low human capital, weak public institutions, and high levels of inefficiency. In the emergence of newly independent less developed states in the 1950s, the rationale of foreign assistance shifted to economic growth where the role of aid was seen as a source of capital to spur economic growth through higher investments. It was in the late 1950s and early 1960s when the causal relationship between education and development was accepted by academics and policymakers. It was in the early 1960s when education was first included as a component in the foreign assistance to support workforce development plan. As sectoral development processes began to be better understood in the 1960s, the importance of investing in human capital to overcome resource scarcities through technical assistance began to be appreciated by the development community.
Education as a vital tool for development came to the scene during the 1970s when the primary objective of aid is to increase the living standards of the poor through increased employment opportunities. Aid was no longer closely identified to economic growth and exclusively as a source of domestic and external savings. The international aid scene has a greater focus on poverty, and on peoples` welfare in general. The two major donors with their advocacy of anti-poverty programmes were World Bank and USAID.
In essence, it became clear that in the 1960s and 1970s that a large portion of a nation`s economic growth could be attributed to the quality of its labor force measured by the expansion of education and health. By the 1980s, education had expanded and grown to include primary and secondary education. The sudden shift was triggered by the World Bank`s publication of an education policy paper in 1980 which assessed the costs and earnings of manpower including the calculation of economic rates of return on education investments. The common finding was that primary education had the highest economic returns. In short, primary education is the most viable means for reducing poverty.
Having the importance of basic education in mind, in the 1990s, a prevailing pattern of education, ‘education for all’, surfaced that highlights primary education among donors In recognition of the fact that that education is a foundation for progress, in the early 2000s, member states of the UN has made achieving the universal primary education in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It recognized the initiative in Education for All, based on Dakar Actions Framework in 2000, a global commitment to provide equal access of education for both girls and boys. More importantly, the EFA is one of the global efforts being made in achieving the 2015 Millennium Development Goals, where access to education represents as an underpinning in expanding human capabilities and freedoms. Last September 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the MDGs prominently including the quality perspective and its aim of inclusive and equitable quality education This advancement has been the prevailing approach of education aid in recipient countries until today.
Aid-receiving countries, particularly the Philippines, is one of the countries that receives foreign assistance to improve its education sector in partnership with its donors such as ADB, World Bank, and AusAID. At present, the country`s educational system has several issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the access and quality of education to most of its population In the report of the National Statistics Office (NSO), a great number of school age children are engaged in both work and school. The average dropout rate is 7.34 percent for elementary and 13.10 percent for high school. More often than not, dropping out often translates into a child working to help augment the family`s income. Depressed areas of the Philippines are generally unable to provide or sustain basic education services at levels that ensure a child can break from the poverty cycle. More importantly, the poverty level in the Philippines remains much higher than any other nation in Southeast Asia.
Despite the foreign aid`s success on high levels of children entering the school system, there are still pressing concerns regarding those children who are out of school, not completing primary school, and most importantly the quality of primary and secondary education. In the UNDP`s 2013 data, results show 59 million children of primary-school age were out of school. Estimation among those 59 million children, 1 in 5 of those children had dropped out and recent studies show that 2 in 5 children will never set foot in a classroom.
Moreover, children from the poorest households are nearly 4 times to be out-of-school in contrast to their well-off counterparts. Some of the key factors that hampers the quality of education are: the standard of student: teacher ratio, reflecting 29 percent of elementary schools and 37 percent of high schools have less teachers, whereas others have surplus; the book: student ratio shows a 1:6 in public elementary and 1:8 in public secondary schools; and a decrease in the NAT, where students averaged between 30-50 percent instead of 75 percent as a learning target. In order for literacy to become a norm rather than an exception takes a hefty process, and it cannot be achieved without the increase in the number of children successfully completing basic education.
In the last couple of years, developing countries like the Philippines, have adopted policies to reduce the costs of enrolling a child in school. Some of these are ending school fees, provision of free uniforms and meals through feeding programs, also establishing programs that include household demand for education through conditional cash transfer (CCTs). The program was first launched in 2007 as a pilot test (initially known as Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino) covering 6,000 households. Expanded in 2008, the CCT program of the Philippines, locally known as the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), has become one of the largest poverty alleviation and social protection program that provides cash assistance to improve living conditions of poor households, provided that they must first comply to certain conditions such as investing on the education and health of their children. It was patterned after the conditional cash transfer in Latin America which have been proven successful as a poverty reduction and social development measure.
Donor agencies such as ADB, World Bank, and AusAID partnered with the government in its program that prioritizes education, particularly basic education. The program successfully kept children in school. During the first impact evaluation survey in 2011, findings underscore that the Pantawid Pamilya meets its objectives in education by increasing enrolment rate among younger children (aged 3-11 y/o) and increasing attendance among 6-17 years of age. Moreover, the findings showed higher enrolment rates among Pantawid children aged 3-11(by 10% points for 3-5 y/o and 4.5% points for 6-11 y/o.) Provided that the programme at the time is not designed for children beyond 14 years of age, the programme did not have a significant impact on children (aged 12-17.) Nevertheless, the programme was still unable to improve enrollment of children (aged 12-14 y/o) who are currently covered under the 4Ps. By and large, the first round impact evaluation in 2011 shows that the program has not had any significant impact on increasing enrolment to older children, 12-17y/o in particular. The findings in the first impact evaluation is similar to Reyes, Tabuga, Mina, and Asis` study.
Since the programme`s vast scale-up, the 2013 second round of the impact evaluation took place. The key findings highlight the programme`s success of keeping older children in school by improving the gross enrollment rate of high school Pantawid children (aged 12-15). Amidst the positive impact mentioned above, it does not mean that there is no room for improvements. Indeed, generally, the programme has improved the enrollment rates of its recipients. It can be refuted, however, that there are some 4Ps beneficiaries that were not able to meet the conditions, especially in education. Based from the DSWD`s annual accomplishment report CY2017, it entails the national compliance for education is below the target (82.64%), meaning there is no increase when it comes to compliance. For regional breakdown, see Table 1
Table 1 : CY 2017 Target and Acc omplishment for Compliance in Education per Region
Source: DSWD Pantawid Pamilyang Piliino Program Implementation Status Reports
Therefore, it would be compelling to speculate on why in some cases, among the programme beneficiaries with primary or secondary-aged children, objectives were met, while for others, some failed to comply with the CCT program`s objective. The purpose of this paper is to examine on why some families failed to meet the objective of sending their children to school and finish their basic education.
Statement of the Problem
Foreign aid`s primary objective is to promote development. Some donors prioritize education on their foreign aid programs such as ADB, World Bank, and AusAID. A portion of aid coming from these donor agencies is provided to the Philippines` conditional cash transfer program, commonly known as the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). The 4Ps program provides grants to poor households subject to monitored compliance with health and education obligations. Recipients are identified by the targeting system, National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR), identifies poor households based on a Proxy Means Test (PMT) methodology. As it is common for CCT Programmes to condition cash transfers on school attendance, it is natural to ask the impact of the CCT on school enrollment and attendance rate. Despite the CCT programme`s positive impact on school enrollment, a common finding among reports discloses this significant positive impact on enrollment and attendance is not for all age groups, particularly older children of 4Ps (15-18 y/o).
Therefore, the paper is significant in improving foreign aid use for the education sector, particularly basic education. Moreover, it is essential for enhancing the design of the CCT to maximize its benefits.
Looking at the 4Ps Conditional Cash Transfer as a case, under what circumstances does foreign aid become effective in improving the education sector, particularly basic education? In particular, why is it that the impact is not so significant in the attendance and enrollment among other 4Ps children?
During the implementation of the CCT, what interventions were used by the implementing agency to ensure compliance in education? What management approaches were utilized? Why were the 4Ps primary/ secondary-aged beneficiaries were unable to adhere to the conditions?
What are the roles of stakeholders? (4Ps parents, pupils, municipality/city links, parent leaders, LGUs, CSOs, etc.)
A positive contribution of aid is expanding enrollment rates of 4Ps beneficiaries. On the other hand, several results of aid has indicated a considerable gap on what aid can do and what it can potentially achieve, especially in terms of its contribution on boosting enrollment and maintain school attendance of at least 85% of school days per month of Panatwid beneficiaries. The study on how to make aid effective in promoting education through 4Ps CCT in 5 barangays of Quezon city`s 2nd district has the hypothesis that institutional rules constraints individual`s behaviour to comply, which in turn affects aid`s efficiency in promoting education through 4Ps. This is in line with previous evaluations citing administrative issues one of which is overworked staff and shortage of municipality links and support services in the community level. On the other hand, notwithstanding the cash grants, the grant rates are low and account a smaller share of the household income. Thus, the rates might not incentivize the families to comply to the said conditions, particularly in education.
Therefore, the study applies Rational Choice Institutionalism Theory to explain the aforementioned phenomenon. Through the application of the Rational Choice Institutionalism approach, the argument validates that the institutional rules among individuals have affected aid`s impact in promoting education.
The purpose of this study is to analyze aid`s effectiveness, indirectly through 4Ps CCT Programme, in promoting education in the Philippines. The main assumption on why some 4Ps recipients failed to adhere to the set of conditions for education is due to institutional rules that constraints individual`s behaviour. Therefore, the study will examine the present institutions of 4Ps recipients and the personnel of the implementing agency.
Before explaining the conceptual framework used to organize this paper, it is important to understand the relevant theory on understanding attitudes and predicting on how institutions affect the behavior of actors that leads to the outcome of individual`s choices, hence, affecting aid`s effectiveness in promoting education through 4Ps programme. The following section on the concept of Rational Choice Institutionalism theory will address this need for a theoretical background analysis before explaining the framework.
Rational Choice Institutionalism Theory
The study made reference to the Rational Choice Institutionalism theory. The theory arose within the original theory of Rational Choice. The old meaning of institutions stems back when it was defined as set of rules, establishments, and individuals. Subsequebtly, it emerged as structures that emerge to solve collective action problems, thus, facilitate gains from cooperation and as Douglas North said, “humanly-devised constraints that shape human interaction.”
The basic idea of rational choice is that patterns of behavior in societies reflect the choices made by individuals as they try to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs. Its utility maximization explains that when an individual is confronted with a range of options, the actor will choose the one that will serve her best interest. Rational choice theory constitutes a simple explanation: given a social phenomenon, what is needed in order to explain its origin are the strategies that rational actors would pursue in those circumstances, and the aggregate effects of those strategies. Thus, the outcome is the result of the purposive actions of various individuals.
More importantly, it relies on the assumptions that are made concerning preferences, beliefs, and constraints—the key of elements of all rational choice explanations. Preferences denote the positive or negative evaluations individuals attach to possible outcomes of their actions; beliefs refer to the cause-effect relations, including perceived likelihood with which individual`s actions will result in different possible outcomes; and constraints defines the limits to the set of feasible actions.
Rational Choice theorists have studied institutions both as independent variables that channel individual choices and as independent variables chosen or designed by actors to secure mutual gains. Methodologically, rational choice theory translates into studying on how institutions constrain the sequence of interaction among actors, the choices amiable to particular actors, the structure of information hence beliefs of the actors, and the payoffs of the individuals. The outcomes of the design process are determined by the nature of incentives and constraints built into the institutions.
Within the Rational choice approach there are two standard ways to think about institutions: 1) Institutions as Exogenous and 2) Institutions as Endogenous. Initially, the Exogneous variable study the effects of institutions on individuals who are assumed to have a particular set of interests. Therefore, in this sense, institution affect the behaviour of indviduals by restricting individual choices, affecting how they interact, molds their information and beliefs, and shaping their sense of payoffs. As the economic historian, Douglas North said, “institutions are the rules of the game in a society, humanly-devised constraints that shape human interaction.” The latter, endogenous variables defines institutions as rules on how players want to play. Institutions in this case help individuals capture gains from cooperation through incentives.
In connection to this, the 4Ps Programme is a poverty reduction and social development strategy of the national government, targeting the country`s poorest households with children aged 0-18. The programme has two main objectives: social development and social assistance. The former aims to break the intergenerational poverty cycle by investing in human capital—education and health, while the latter aims to alleviate the poor`s immediate needs. Although, there are conditions that needs to be met. In order to receive cash grants, the recipients should follow the conditions that are laid down, specifically education conditions for this study. Failure to comply to the conditions can result in undermining aid`s effectiveness.
In summary, Rational choice institutionalism shares the same idea of individual behavior with the original theory of rational choice. Both approaches assume that individual choices are self-interested. Though, their goals can be effectively fulfilled through institutional action. Meaning, institutions can affect the behavior of actors, however individuals react rationally to the incentives and constraints of those institutions. Behavior is endogenous, not produced by institution, rather institution are purposeful human constructions designed to solve collective action problems.
4632960349250PATTERNS OF INTERACTION
PATTERNS OF INTERACTION
The figure illustrates the Rational Choice Institutionalism Theory applied to the 4Ps recipients as it shows on how institution affects the structure of a situation which individuals select strategies for the pursuit of their own preferences. Same figure will be utilized for the DSWD Implementing Personnel.
The hypothesis that institutional rules constraints both individuals`–the implementing agency and recipient behavior, which in turn explains the various behaviour of 4Ps recipients compliance to the conditions in education will be explained using Rational Choice Institutionalism as it states that institutions influence behavior by affecting the structure of a situation which individuals select strategies for the pursuit of their own preferences. For rational choice, to understand institutions we first need to understand individual interactions, specifically the game people play in this study.
4Ps Recipients (why some did not comply???)
If the Rational Choice Institutionalism is applied, then the focus of aid`s effectiveness in promoting education success lies in the Institution which affects individual`s choice and actions in various ways depending on the opportunity they face. The study will apply the Rational Choice approach to institutions as explained in two separate ways: 1) Institutions as Exogenous, defines institutions as rules of the game that constrains behavior of actors; and 2) Institutions as Endogenous where the researcher needs to examine the emergence, necessity, and durability of institutions. In this sense, institution affects human behavior by helping individuals capture gains from cooperation through incentives. To survive, institutions must be self-enforcing in the sense that relevant actors have incentives to abide by them.
From the perspective of CCT programme, institutions refers to the Conditions attached to the cash grants. Institutions can be understood as actor-created formal rules of the game, thus constrains actors` behaviour. More importantly, provided that institutions create the rules of the game, same when it comes to incentives.
The term Action Arena refers to the Actors and the Actors` situation. The source of action is the actors` preferences and interests—to comply or not to comply. This is where individuals implement their strategies. The individuals are rational actors with fixed preferences seeking to strategically maximize and attain these preferences. The individuals make rational choices from their set of preferences by evaluating their likely consequences (beliefs). The actors behave strategically in order to obtain their most preferred outcome. The Patterns of Interaction refer toFollowing, aid effectiveness is taken as a sequence of action dilemmas and its outcome is determined by strategic interaction. Further, the strategies chosen by those in action arena determines the Outcome. More importantly, the outcomes of the design process are determined by the nature of incentives and constraints built into the institutions.
The implication of conditions to the cash grants means that the beneficiairies need to pay a certain amount in exchange of the continuous cash grants received. The amount that needs to be paid comes in the form of money and effort in ensuring that their children are attending school.
If the Rational Choice Institutionalism is applied, then the actors responsible for the success of the 4Ps CCT programme are the implementing agency and 4Ps beneficiaries in Quezon City`s 2nd district. Both of these actors pursues their own incentives.
In accordance to this framework, an institution, which is founded on the basis of the implementing agency—DSWD that is fulfilling its responsibility to implement the smooth implementation of the programme
that there are some cases that 4Ps recipients were able to successfully comply to the conditions, whereas some failed to do so. The researcher formulated 2 incentives that may affect the behavior of the Pantawid recipients that were based from pertinent CCT studies namely: a) additional income support b) increases human capital (having better foresight of the future) as collated from previous success of the programme. This theory hopes to shed light on determining the reasons to why some 4Ps beneficiaries failed to comply with the said objectives. Provided the stated hypothesis, the agency personnel of the DSWD will also be examined using the same theory but different bla bla
Significance of the Study
This research is significant because of its ability to provide observations and insights regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid through the 4Ps programme in promoting education, particularly basic education. Information of this sort is essential because it serves as a form of feedback to government officials/ stakeholders in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the programme in addressing the needs of its recipients. This study also helps to evaluate any flaws in the implementation. As an integral programme of the government, it is fundamental that the 4Ps` implementation should be closely monitored to ensure that the recipient who failed to meet the objectives will be valuable inputs in correcting any deficiencies, strengthening any weaknesses, and reinforcing any strength. Therefore, the benefits to de derived from the 4Ps as envisioned by the government will be realized.
For the Philippines to solve the challenges of aid effectiveness considered in this research, it recognizes that the utilization of aid in education must be a fundamental part of the solution. The paper will contribute to the effectiveness of foreign aid utilization in improving basic education of the recipient government. It will shed light to further understand the challenges on why some families were not able to meet the objectives of the Conditional Cash Transer or 4Ps Program. The shortcomings presented in this research would be beneficial within a larger context on the provision of aid in the country`s CCT Program and more importantly, its long-term impact on making aid work for the country`s development objectives.
This study is expected to strengthen and deepen the knowledge of development practitioners, students from the field of International Studies, international organization, advocacy networks, and academes in making thorough intervention assessments that will further contribute to the efforts on enhancing disadvantaged people`s lives and mitigating poverty through intervening more on improving education in the Philippines. No amount of job creation will employ and lift out poverty of millions unskilled citizens and no government can sustain growth and job creation on such weak foundation.
Scope and Limitation
The paper will provide a comprehensive investigation on aid`s effectiveness, indirectly through the 4Ps Programme , in promoting basic education in the Philippines with its objective of analyzing on why some 4Ps recipient families failed to comply to the set of conditions, in particular education. As of May 31, 2018, there are 38,216 active household beneficiaries in Quezon city. The scope of this study will be the 5 barangays in the 2nd district located in Quezon city as it is one of the many barangays covered by the 4Ps of DSWD. Furthermore, the paper will only cover 2008-present. 2008 is the year when the CCT is first implemented by the Arroyo Administration after its remarkable success in its pilot test back in 2007. The key informants will only be limited to a specific number of individuals like the families of the CCT recipients who live in 2nd district of Q.C. , the involved stakeholders such as the DSWD officials in coordination with ground coordinators, city/municipal links, who serve as the frontlines and is fully knowledgeable of the 4Ps educational operations for us to thoroughly grasp on how aid is being maximized efficiently to its recipients and to examine the conditions that led to the challenges being faced by the 4Ps today.
Instead of nationwide sampling of the program, it is impossible for the researcher to do so due to time and budget constraints. The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) underscored ARMM having the highest out-of-school children and youth which comprises of 14.4% of the country. Therefore, based from the DSWD`s Monthly Report on Pantawid Pamilya Coverage as of May 31, 2018, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao has the most number of 4Ps active beneficiaries with 9.8% or 429,106 households. Again, given the time and budget constraints, in the meantime, to rigorously analyze the problem and challenges on why the program was not able to meet the objective in some families, the researcher will focus on the barangays in the 2nd district of Quezon city. It is far from the study`s aim to create policy recommendations. Furthermore, it does not attempt to quantify the contribution of such assistance to development, aware of the pitfalls and difficulties of impact assessment. Instead, it will review the interventions of education assistance in terms of both quantity and quality, also indicates some plausible directions in relation to the role of education assistance to the Philippines. Since the study will be employing a qualitative research data, the research will only be limited to a specific topic such as pertinent articles and reports on aid allocations for basic education.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Education and Development
Development is the most important challenge facing the international community today. In the literature of development, ‘Development’ is progress, be it economic, social or cultural, which serves basic needs of individuals. These needs include: economic opportunities, political freedoms, social freedoms, transparency, and protective security. Conversely, underdevelopment occurs when these needs are deprived from people or are not all equally accessible to all members of the populace. As Sen explained, development is a process of expanding the real freedoms people enjoy. Moreover, he cited that education contributes to development directly because of its relevance to the well-being and freedom of people, indirectly through influencing social change, and indirectly through economic production.
The causal relationship between education and development has been accepted by scholars in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Education has been viewed to play a central role in growth. What makes education essential is that it has greatly influenced two categories: monetary and non-monetary. In the realm of monetary, human capital theory recognizes education as essential for development as it imparts productive knowledge and skills, which education imparts. According to human capital theory, investing in education leads to the formation of human capital, which is an essential factor for economic growth. In this matter, development is a complex phenomenon in which economic growth plays a vital part. The knowledge disseminated through education, increases productivity, reduces fertility and improves health, equipping people with skills for them to fully participate in the workforce, thus, increases income. Education as an investment on human capital yields to national economic benefits by increasing the productive capacity of individuals. Therefore, a portion of a nation`s economic growth could be attributed based on the quality of its labor force through education`s expansion. The human capital approach recognizes both the direct contribution of education to development such as health, nutrition, democracy etc. and the indirect contribution to development which influences income and productivity and earnings. For instance, Awan, Malik, Sarwar, and Waqas argued that education is an important factor in reducing poverty. In Pakistan, it recognized that monthly earning of an individual worker increased by 7.3% with an additional year of schooling. Furthermore, they found out that each additional year of schooling level increased earnings by 3% at the primary level, 5% at the secondary, and 7.1-8.2% at higher/tertiary level. Each level of technical training increased earnings by 2.5%. Therefore, it is palpable that education can increase the earnings of the poor and they become economically productive. Their analysis suggests that as education attainment increases, the more likelihood of being poor declines.
In the mid 1990s, the thought that education and human capital are essential for economic growth and poverty reduction gained much importance because of the economic progress of East Asian tigers such as Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan in the 1970s and 80s was due to their investment in education and human capital. On the other hand, non-monetary influences include having a better impact on personal health, nutrition practices, childrearing, and participating in voluntary activities. As such, education should be regarded as a basic human right. In this perspective, human development recognizes the intrinsic value of education; it views it as a human right, an entitlement, and an opportunity. In all this, education is essential to all parts of development—agricultural productivity, poverty reduction, income distribution, health, nutrition etc. as it enhances individuals to become civically engaged, economically productive, and improves well-being. Indeed, no 21st century economy can expect to develop a productive workforce to take advantage of globalization without a well-functioning education system.
That having said, education is not only an objective in itself, but it is also an important driving force for overall economic growth. The “Education for All” (EFA) world conferences in 1990 and 2000, and the education specific Millennium Development Goals (MDG 2) focus in particular primary education, is considered as a human right. The goal of universal primary education was established with the recognition of the fact that education is a foundation of progress for all development goals. Last September 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the MDGs prominently including the quality perspective and its aim of inclusive and equitable quality education. Psacharopoulos highlighted that investment in education has shown particularly higher rates of return to both the individual and society. Therefore, education is recognized as a part of any multidimensional concept of development.
Development aid is given by affluent nations to support development in general which can be economic development or social development of developing states. It is usually distinguished from humanitarian aid as aimed in alleviating poverty in the long term than alleviating poverty in a transient way. In its most basic definition, development aid are resources given by developed countries to help people in poorer nations.
Statistical studies have produced a gamut of differing literature of assessments in relation to the correlation between aid and growth, and no firm consensus has emerged on claiming that foreign aid generally boost growth. Some studies find a positive correlation; however, others find either no correlation or an adverse correlation. Foreign assistance has taken its roots of optimism from the success of Marshall Plan. The expectations were substantial with the belief that the success of Europe`s reconstruction could be replicated elsewhere. Today, research on aid`s impact of aid flows suggests that aid spurs growth, therefore, contributes in reducing poverty levels. This viewpoint has been strongly articulated by one of the leading advocates of aid effectiveness-Sachs in his analysis, “Can Foreign Aid Reduce Poverty”, citing that foreign aid provides the greatest hope for lifting the world`s most impoverished out of the poverty cycle His report reflected the horrific conditions of poverty and assumes that the affluent nations is responsible for reducing poverty. The positive relationship between aid and growth is argued by Papanek to which the findings concludes that aid has greater effect on GDP growth than domestic savings or foreign investments.
Aid fanatics like Sachs and Papanek, point many cases where aid has contributed in reducing child mortality, life expectancy, child survival in school, improved access to clean water, assisted in smallpox eradication, treatment of diseases such as Malaria and AIDS. Indeed, there is no doubt that over the years of aid has some exemplary successes to show. Take the health sector for example, development assistance has contributed significantly to the increase of life expectancy in the developing countries from 40 to 65 years, the eradication of diseases such as smallpox and the reduction of infant mortality (sample) Asian countries such as Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand are considered to have gained from aid and achieved high rates of growth. During the late 1960s, the Green Revolution in India greatly benefited from foreign assistance which in turn saved millions of lives from starvation.
While there is much optimism on aid`s impact on development, critics of aid have made equally passionate claims asserting exactly the opposite. The World Bank has reported that more than three billion people are living under $2 per day and ten thousand children are dying due to conditions that are associated to extreme poverty and despite billions of dollars poured into underdeveloped countries for years, in 2010, 48% of people in Sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme poverty. The main prediction is that aid would have large and have positive growth effects in poor countries. Decades of research on aid and growth has failed to generate evidence in this prediction. Take Africa, for instance. Easterly challenges the idea that aid has large growth effects, helping poor countries escape the poverty cycle by citing several evidence: Africa being the largest aid recipient, but African growth is lowest in any continent; aid has risen over time as a percent of income in poor countries, and yet their growth rates has failed over time.
Similarly, Ayittey`s conclusion shows that aid has proved the greatest reason for the majority of sub-Saharan Africa`s predicament, many of whom endures on less than one dollar a day. Lastly, Moyo also conveys that aid can increase the chances of domestic conflict in Africa where aid is most abundant. Conflicts such as: aid as an easy money which fosters corruption, distorts economies, creates culture of dependency and economic laziness. In fact, her argument is clearly straightforward. She argued that aid did not merely failed, otherwise it has compounded Africa`s problems.
Still, other critics of aid stake out the middle ground. A more controversial analysis, however, is that aid`s impact on growth depends on the quality of the aid-receiving country`s institutions and policies. It turns out that a good policy environment has a fundamental role in making aid effective. Burnside and Dollar found that aid has minimal impact on growth. Though, aid works better in countries with good policy environment. Similarly, Durbary, Gemmell, and Greenaway has similar findings. This argument has been strongly opposed by Hansen and Tarp, suggesting that foreign aid spurs development even in countries hampered by poor policy environment. While there is a strong dispute on the relation of aid effectiveness and good policy environment. Similarly, another relevant issue that has drawn interest of aid researchers is the accountability of aid-recipient governments. Just like the previous argument, Thorbecke argued that the effectiveness of aid in development will only be successful if the aid recipient country is following growth enhancement policies. Given the high importance of recipient country`s accountability, donors mostly favor countries in which the expected outcome are likely to be achieved. Just like Germany`s ODA, it strongly provides a substantial amount of aid towards countries with good governance which is why it strongly emphasizes its Technical Assistance to ensure that aid funds are utilized efficiently. Many studies found a positive correlation between aid and good governance. Needless to say, foreign aid is more likely to lead growth and aid interventions are likely to have higher rates of economic return in the context of accountable government institutions, particularly democratic and where the rule of law prevails.
Furthermore, aid critics like Winters argues that foreign aid functions better—both at the macro-level of aid flows and the micro-level of individual aid projects—when there is more government implementing agency accountability. These findings give a clear implication that in order to effectively maximize aid in reducing global poverty, aid in the context of accountable institutions is better aid. In a similar case, Collier found out that aid is only likely to boost growth in a relatively small number of cases—if aid is put to proper use in selected instances, it can be part of the solution. In the remaining cases, it will only sustain countries in the form of minimal life support. As an overall result, aid spurs growth in countries with good policy environment–with low inflation, has openness to trade, strong rule of law, and competent government as it exudes more accountability. On the contrary, this would mean leaving poor countries behind in which it strongly challenges the main objective of aid-giving.
With these prevalent challenges being contested, there is a reason to doubt the sustainability of foreign assistance. Sustainability, is widely recognized of its importance criterion in development projects. Looking into the future of foreign aid, sustainability became an optimal guiding tool in providing an important momentum in innovating new ideas, mobility, policy change, particularly, in the development of the global agenda in reducing poverty in less affluent countries. Sustainability should be incorporated in all aid interventions to maximize its benefits to its recipients, as well as to ensure the positive impact of development aid by enhancing its accountability through collective action. Amidst the success of short-term objectives, it often faces difficulties in achieving long-term sustainable aid-funded projects and programmes especially with the recurring previously mentioned realities of aid`s lack of resources and leadership in highlighting the objectives of aid, its impact on development, and the current explanation of aid`s association to national interest makes it difficult to assess the sustainability of aid`s impact in the long run.
Provided that aid`s success is due to its attainment of short-term immediate objectives, outcomes are often regarded of having less value when temporary. Indeed, it is difficult to assert that development occurred if a certain intervention failed to persist. In most development organizations, they anticipate the costs of their project based on the number of beneficiaries, including those who will continue to reap benefits even after the external activity has ended. In fact, USAID has included sustainability as a part of their criterion of project success. At the turn of the millennium, after ten years of steep decrease in ODA, the UN adopted the 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These helped relaunch global aid, which concentrated on social and medical objectives. At present, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015, that fabricated both the framework for political, economic, social, and environmental policies of all countries and new framework of intervention for global aid. All the financial tools have a role in the SDGs. Development has become ‘sustainable development’ and development aid is increasingly ‘sustainable development aid.’
Authors like Therien and Lloyd raised that there is a reason to question the sustainability of aid as both concluded that development aid will remain contingent to the socioeconomic condition of the donor government. Among the various problems which the aid regime is confronting is the decline of financial resources among donor states. More and more donors have been cutting back its aid resources due to several factors such as the reason that domestic issues are more favorable than extending assistance to recipients. Another reason for poor sustainability is that it is poorly defined and development organizations differ in what aspects of their aid interventions should be sustained.
In the study delivered by Nkansa and Chapman, sustainability is variously defined by organizations in terms: 1) the extent to which organizational structures established by a project such as parent-teacher associations remain after the funding ends; 2) the capacity of participant increases despite the fate of an aid activity; 3) the overall economic growth of a country improves due to the aggregated assistance given by donors.Drawn from the study of Chapman and Moore, despite the joint efforts of the Education for All fast track initiative (FTI) and long-term commitment that was associated to the Sector-Wide Approaches (SWAPs), it remains the case that external efforts to basic education is provided on a short-term basis, thus working against sustainability.
In summary, aid is fundamental in development and poverty reduction in recipient countries. It augments domestic savings and allows access to foreign markets. It is often claimed that the relationship between development and aid is conditional such as government with good governance, On the contrary, some argue that there is no relation between aid and growth. Moreover, aid is often wasted, increases public consumption, rises corruption, and aid-dependency of recipient countries. All things considered, these empirical literatures on aid`s effectiveness reflects that aid is not necessarily a good thing, however, it can be beneficial. The emerging conclusion from these literature is that aid can have a positive effect on development, however, the link between the two remains vague and that the positive and negative data heavily depends on the choice of data and the methods that were used. Needless to say, there has been no general consensus upon the issue, thus, the overall effect of aid remains complex.
Education as a priority
A developing society cannot foster development without educated individuals as education attacks ignorance, provides information and skills that would benefit the individual`s progress and society as a whole. Since 1945 and the constitution of the United Nations, the signatories expressed their beliefs “in full and equal opportunities for education for all, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth and the free exchange of ideas and knowledge.” During the early 1960s and 70s, education was first included as a feature of foreign assistance, however, the struggle to place human capital on the agenda of international development assistance has undergone three decades of argumentation. First, is the challenge of human forecasting where it has failed to include measures of cost and benefits, therefore, foreign aid programmes are deeply distorted. Much of aid was limited to vocational and technical education, the most expensive part of the education sector with skills in least demand. As a result, much of foreign aid to education was wasted.
The second stage utilized the national growth models and the estimation of costs and earnings over a working lifetime to individuals who completed different levels of education. Through the utilization of growth models, one can measure a nation`s economic growth by the size of its labor force and the quality of its workforce. As a result, one can surmise that during the 1960s and 1970s, a large portion of a nation`s development could be associated to the quality of its labor force measured by the expansion of education.
With that said, through the measurement of costs and earnings, one could estimate the rates of return in investing in education. The 1980s expanded education`s scope which includes primary and secondary education, humanities and social sciences, professional education and education research. Basic education has an appeal for outside assistance since it has been shown to be a good way to direct resources ore specifically towards the poor and brings high economic returns. This has been shown by the World Bank`s 1980 education policy paper shows that the measured econmomic benefits relative to costs have to been found to be greater for investment in primary schooling than for higher, more expensive levels of schooling.
In several countries, the returns of primary education is twice as high as those to higher education. Furthermore, primary education is an efficient way to direct resources to the poor, since the benefits of primary education supplants to those who are less fortunate. The World Bank, Development Assistance Committee of the OECD, and others have given support to a shift in the emphasis of education towards primary education and away from higher education, as based from the higher economic returns to investment in the former. Indeed, many countries have documented the high rates of return on investment in education Relying on the evidence of higher rates of return in lower levels of education, the World Bank has strongly advocated directing substantial increase of education aid towards basic education and away from higher education. Moreover, the bank supports the view that provisions of universal quality basic education is of great assistance towards economic and social advancement of the aid-receiving countries.
It was in the year 1990s when the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien took place where a shared vision was developed to meet the basic learning needs. Furthermore, the international community have committed itself to reach the Universal primary education before the end of the millennium. International interest in aid to basic education and literacy has been sharpened in the past couple of years brought by this event. Ten years have passed and the Forum of Dakar in 2000 addressed that for many countries, the commitment of Universal Primary education is far from reality. Again, such goal is consistent to the findings of recent studies that show economic returns to investment in education to be higher for primary education than for secondary or tertiary. In this occasion, an action framework for education was fabricated and a new number of commitments were made by the internationally community to bolster the international financing on basic education, to enhance aid flows predictability, ensure coordination among donors, and improve an efficient sectoral approach. As a result, all countries are expected to commit and implement plans for Education for All and take necessary steps to achieve the Dakar Framework for Action`s goals.
That having said, it has been internationally agreed that education is not just an objective itself, but an overall driving force towards development. Subsequently, the education specific goal 2 of Millennium Development Goals in 2000 recognizes Dakar`s Education for All intitative as part of the efforts made in achieving the MDG`s by 2015, where access to education marks as an underpinning in the expansion of human capabilities and freedom. In line with these global objectives, donors have taken the obligation to financially support developing countries in this area of development. To support countries at risk of not achieving the objectives, the Fast Track Initiative was established in 2002 that aims to strengthen the achievement of universal education by 2015, as well as to provide support to primary education and enhance its effectiveness. In broader context, the Monterrey Conference in 2002, Rome 2003, and Paris 2005 declarations have also tended to reinforce commitments to the MDGs as well as to formalize the efforts of the international community for harmonization and aid effectiveness. Successively, in the year 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the MDGs prominently including the quality perspective and its aim of inclusive and equitable quality education for all. As reported in the UN resolution establishing the SDGs, the objective for 2030 is to provide “inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels. It is irrefutable to claim that nothing has changed. Much progress has been met; between 2000 and 2013, the number of children in primary and secondary schools increased by 20%.
By and large, Heyneman and Lee delineates that educational assistance remains essential in a recipient country`s development as it is recognized that through human capital, educated population is needed for a country to prosper. Investments in education continue to elicit both monetary and non-monetary rewards to individuals and the society as a whole. Individuals and communities gain comparative advantages in the labor market such as benefits from health practices, substantial productivity, increase in political participation, and social inclusion.
According to the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report 2005, among the top education aid recipients in the world, East Asia and the Pacific is acknowledged as the second in the total aid in education. Issues such as lack of instructional materials, underpaid but overworked teachers, lack of facilities, and is some instances, absence of schools in far-flung areas, overpopulated students, all these issues are compounding over time and hampers the improvement of the education sector.
In this context, foreign aid is utilized by aid-receiving governments to address these blocks that hampers the progress of aid in the education sector. Equally important, aid is channeled into a variety of interventions namely: school feeding programmes, classroom contruction, teacher education, programmes to reduce dropouts, curriculum development and etc. To begin with, the basic support of aid to education are the basic educational requirements such as classrooms, teachers, and textbooks. Take China as an example, a country with one of the world`s most populous countries, with majority of is people living in rural areas, the government of China implemented a program in partnership with other development donors with an objective universalizing nine-year compulsory education and increasing literacy rate of youth and adults. Its investment in education is a major national strategy to upgrade the human resource development for poverty alleviation and social development.
Majority of the China`s citizen lives in rural areas, and people living in poverty are mostly concentrated in rural areas. Therefore, to increase the citizens ‘quality of life, it is necessary to improve the rural population`s productivity and capability, which highly depends on investing in education. Based on the China case study of Zhang and Minxia, the results illustrated that the country`s education intervention, particularly its compulsory education in rural area, is a success partly due to external support. China`s initiative has been strengthened with the funding and expert support from these international agencies—UNDP, ADB, UNICEF, and World Bank and other international donors. Such external support includes the improvement of infrastructure of rural schools, and local capacity building by aiding school construction, providing teacher trainings, supporting teacher-learning processes, and monitoring and improving management performances. In the analysis, brought by China`s education program, it paved the way of dropping impoverished citizens from 250million in 1978 to 80 million in 1995 and to 30 million by the end of 2000. It reflects that education has proved itself to be the most sustainable poverty reduction strategy. they concluded that the expansion of compulsory education in rural China, especially in poverty-stricken areas has proved to be highly cost-effective and has a considerable positive and economic benefits such as increasing the financial returns of farmers.
In comparison, Bangladesh, a developing nation with over 130 million people, of whom are 45% lives below the poverty line, has included education in its poverty reduction strategies. The country`s historical background of neglect, abuse, and deprivation, especially among women, constrains poor people their potential as agents of national development. In the case study made by Alam, he justified Bangladesh`s model for poverty alleviation through literacy-based approach called Ganokendra. The education initiative has been spearheaded by an NGO, DAM (Dhaka Ansania Mission). The DAM works to raise awareness of present issues within the country and works towards poverty alleviation through education-based programs. Support from DAM is provided in forms of trainings, technical services, materials (books and other reading materials) during its operation while its staffs supervises and monitors the activities. Since its development in 1992, the benefits and impact to its beneficiaries are clearly reflected in an improvement of social and economic conditions. With reference to literacy, its program of literacy has served as a catalyst, and its promotion of literacy has prompted continuing education more generally, which in turn is necessary for development. International organizations like UNESCO, has recognized this model and acknowledged it as a development aid success story in the Asia-Pacific region.
Likewise, the case study of Ward in India`s Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme, the largest basic education programme in the world, illustrated the importance of external support in the increase of access to basic education, particularly the northern part of India. Ward highlighted the fundamental role of aid in improving the education sector by providing financial assistance, its continuous support of the programme`s technical development, and strengthening of the monitoring and supervision of the programme. Despite the substantial amount of literature claiming the positive output of aid in educational development, the argument in regards on how educational aid will be more effective remains untapped.
Rather than focusing on aid`s impact on educational outcomes alone, Birchler and Michaelowa`s analysis highlighted the complementing relationship of various areas of education– education facilities and training, teacher training, educational research, early childhood education, vocational training, tertiary education and etc. as an important complementary in achieving increase in enrolment rates, as well as increase in quality education. It implies that the positive outcome in education does not solely depend in the increase of enrolment in primary education, but rather a well- balanced shares of aid to other areas of education will greatly contribute in improving the overall education sector. It is important to recognize that the support given to the varying sub-sectors of education has a mutually reinforcing effect on education outcomes. For what its worth, we cannot expect quality education to spring from overcrowded classrooms, reduced time of classes, lack or absence of textbooks, teachers handling the subjects, and other issues that impedes efficiency of education aid.
Many developing countries have adopted programmes that reduce the opportunity cost of enrolling a child in school. there are a range of supply-side programmes, such as ending school fees, provision of school feeding and uniform, building schools in rural areas where access is otherwise limited, and demand-side interventions, such as conditional cash transfers (CCT), which pay a stipend to poor families on the condition that children go to and stay in school. A large part of empirically defined body of evidence has illustrated the ability of CCT to raise schooling rates in the developing world. Fiszbein and Schady provide a recent reviews of studies that evaluate the impact of CCT programs in developing countries. Nicaragua`s Red de Proteccion Social improved the enrolment rates by 18% points, retention rates by 7% points, and the daily attendance by 11% points for children in grades 1-4. Attanasio, Fitzsimons, and Gomez illustrated that Colombia`s Familias en Accion increased enrolment rates for children aged 12-17, but not for 8-11y/o.
Much of the studies examine Mexico`s Progresa/Oportunidades programme. One of which found that it raised 12-14y/o girl`s enrolment but did not have any effect on younger children. The latter`s explanation was due to the already high enrolment rates for younger children, close to the objective of universal enrolment. Smilarly, Schultz finds a positive impact of Mexico`s CCT on girls` and boys` enrolment, where the pendulum weighs more on girls. On an interesting note, Campos-Vasquez and Santillan found that programme`s school accessibility and quality education is one of the reasons for the rise of drop-out rate in Mexico. A positive impact of Progresa towards the increase of enrolment and reduced employment among both boys and girls was reflected in Skoufias and Parker`s study. Dubois, de Javanry, and Sadoulet argues that the Progresa CCT Programme has significantly increased children`s probability of staying in school, as well as primary grade level progression and completion, however, reduced the progression in the secondary level, Interestingly, Bairod, Fferreira, Ozler, and Woplcock made a different evaluation towards Mexico`s CCT. They compared CCT and UCT (Unconditional Cash Transfer) and found that CCT Programme`s are more effective and has larger impact on enrolment rates as it is explicitly conditional, monitors compliance, and penalize non-compliance.
Brazil`s Bolsa Escola/Familia apperared to reduce drop-outs by 6% points and raise grade promotion by 8-10% points. Though, had minimal impact on student`s performance. On a gender specific impact trajectory, Debrauw, Gilligan, Hoddiott, and Roy entailed the success of Bolsa Escola/Familia, Brazil`s cash transfer program has induced the amount girls spend on domestic work and therefore, allows them to study which accounts to the beneficial effect on Bolsa`s girls` grade progression. As a result, the programme has been successful on promoting older girl`s education than boys. Due in large part of to the high-quality assessment of Latin America`s CCT Programme, CCT interventions have become in other parts of the world. It has shown to be an effective social assistance programme to help alleviate the lives of the poor.
Relatively, in the Philippines, a great number of children of school age are engaged in both work and school. Children from the poorest households are nearly 4 times to be out-of-school in contrast to their well-off counterparts. The average dropout rate is 7.34 percent for elementary and 13.10 percent for high school. More often than not, dropping out often translates into a child working to help augment the family`s income. Hence, patterned after Latin America`s CCT programmes, the 4Ps CCT program in the Philippines was first implemented in 2008. Frufonga`s case study in the Philippine setting illustrates that the CCT programme showed exemplary results such as an increase of children enrolment in public schools and the attendance rate of children also increased.
Although external support in the recipient countries appears to be extremely successful in terms of school enrolments, public schools remain to grapple on containing the large number of students, while also suffering from less adequate budget; in this area quality has had to give way to quantity. Issues such as lack of instructional materials, underpaid but overworked teachers, lack of facilities, and is some instance, absence of schools in far-flung areas, overpopulated students, all these issues are compounding over time and what suffers most is the quality of education. To provide quality education to all students is one of the most important objectives of the education system. The question on what works for aid in education has become increasingly complex as aid`s efficiency is not merely an increase in numbers—of textbooks, children in school, textbooks, schools, teachers—still, in order to make a lasting improvement, aid effectiveness on the quality of learning remains questionable.
Although, foreign aid provisions and achievement in learning involves more of the number of pupils enrolled in school. How well do schools equip and train their students is also a pressing issue. It is unfortunate to say that seven out of ten pupils were not able to reach tertiary level. How do we expect individuals to contribute in nation building if they do not have the necessary skills and training? Another challenge that is being faced in the light of post-MDGs, schools are having difficulty in keeping their students and reducing the number of drop outs.
Aid effectiveness in education
Since the World Declaration on Education for All, adopted by UNESCO, UNICEF, the World Bank and other multilateral agencies, as well as by 155 countries and 150 non-governmental organizations, much work has been taken to enhance the effectiveness of aid to education. Greater engagement among donor agencies are needed. Issues such as lack of harmonization and alignment of donors with domestic objectives have dominated the discussions around aid`s effectiveness. That having said, the 2005 Paris Declaration was established to promote a more efficient aid delivery through greater country ownership and harmonization of aid resources.
Concerns regarding efficiency of education aid mirrors those with concerns in general aid. For instance, assumptions suggest that aid would be effective if (i) spent in very poor countries, (ii) in countries with good policies and credible institutions, (iii) in countries with strong mechanisms of aid allocation. The beauty of effective foreign aid is that it can make such difference. It`s about the benefits of families in developing countries—aid saves people`s lives, allows children of good nutrition, and helps the poor escape from the poverty cycle.
Aid in general can reduce poverty by investing in human capital such as health. In the light of global commitment of education for all, the initial analysis of aid effectiveness in education was specified by Michaelowa and Birchler by arguing that aid led to modest improvement in enrolment rates but not necessarily in terms of quality education With respect on enhancing student learning outcomes, aid has been more prominent in improving enrolment rates than increasing the achievement rates.
One of the most tangible impact of aid in education is the increase of enrolment rates, particularly primary school as reflected in Dreher, Nunnenkamp, and Thiele`s analysis. Albeit it does not connote that an increase of investment in education leads to a wider attainment of objectives. Hence, there is a common view that in targeting quantity – getting children into school – quality has been sacrificed by not making sure that they learn something once they get there. Overcrowded classrooms, poorly qualified teachers and lack of teaching materials create a poor learning environment, exacerbated by rampant absenteeism among both pupils and their teachers.
Quality education is often downplayed since most of the development agencies has focused on aid`s contribution towards the achievement of MDGs, and hence an increase on enrolment rates, attainment, and gender equality as explained by Riddell and Zarazua. Likewise, drawn from the meta-studies conducted by Chapman and Moore, it shows that the flaw of organizations` project evaluations has a dearth of evidence on the impact of project activities in promoting its educational learning achievements.
Pursuing this further, there are substantial studies which illustrates aid waste. Aid is often categorized as a waste if there is a extensive mismatch between donor policies and recipient needs as reflected by Collier to which he illustrated aid given to health sector. Results found that only less than a percent of aid reached health clinics and turns out that eleven percent was surprisingly financed to the military. Luteru and Teasdale has the same analysis and results show that this mismatch has its roots deep in the complex of motives behind aid giving. As a case in point, in Kyrgyzstan, both institutions—Asian Development Bank and World Bank both launched education textbooks in the same country. The institutions` lack of coordination created duplication of aid efforts. Hence, there is waste of aid if there is a duplication with what is already being addressed by other donors.
Another point of aid`s insufficiency in education may also be caused due to several prevailing priorities of the government in terms of its interests in domestic affairs, commercial, and military priorities. Furthermore, education aid is oftentimes pervaded in specific circumstances such as graft and corruption, hence, hampers the progress of aid in the education sector, thus, waste of aid. The disintegration of donors, projects, and lack of coordination between donors-recipients can lead to higher transaction costs. Moreover, the greater the number of interventions that influence the outcome, the more difficult it is to scrutinize the aid`s impact to its recipients, which is why Howes suggested ways on enhancing the use of aid: harmonization and alignment. Harmonization can be beneficial by focusing on a number of small programs, while alignment integrates aid-funded programs to local initiatives. This was reflected in India`s SSA programme as discussed earlier by Ward. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and influenced both policy implementation and management in India`s SSA programme, this successful harmonization has been justified by the government of India who succeeded in using external resources and expertise in ways that it suited its own purposes, while minimizing external influence in its own educational policy as reflected in Colclough and De`s analysis.
This issue is discussed in a similar perspective by Thiele who examined that donors did not target education aid to countries in need as measured by the net primary school enrollment, primary school completion rate, and average years of schooling. On the contrary, Nelson examined six major bilateral donors—Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the US, between 1981-2004, it shows that educational aid interventions were responsive to the primary school completion rate of the recipient country that donors found to be strategically important. Moreover, Dreher, Nunnekamp, and Thiele find donors` responsiveness to countries with large gender gaps and a lower rate of females in primary school completion and tertiary enrollment from 2002-2011.
Some studies found strong evidence that educational aid is associated with the recipient country`s rule of law. It favors countries that have rules of society and maintain contract enforcement, implying the appropriate use of aid. Since corruption levels are indicative of a government`s ability to allocate resources efficiently and administer effectively, and it is expected that such factors contributes to aid effectiveness in education That being said, some have drawn a link between aid and corruption in recipient countries as discussed by Heyneman Consistent to this claim, Nielson, Homer, and Christensen showed that bilateral donors have more capacity of boosting enrollment rates since much of its aid is conditioned based on the recipient country`s policy environment.
In the case of education aid in fragile states, Turrent and Oketch analysis of 52 fragile countries that receives education aid and found that countries that fall under fragile states receives less aid than countries that are categorized as less-fragile. Moreover, despite the universal commitment of primary education, it seems to be the case that education aid is a less of a development priority in fragile states. Sumida shares the same argument and adds that donors respond to education aid in countries where there are gender disparities.
Reviewing the previous literature shows that there are deficiencies in the literature that affects the critical arguments for aid efficiency in the basic education sector. First, none of the previous analysis examine.. These loopholes in the literature fail to provide evidence for educational policymakers to evaluate inquiries regarding aid`s effectiveness to basic education. This lack of evidence may downplay the efficiency of education aid.
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
In order to satisfy the objectives of the research, a qualitative research design will be utilized, particularly a mixture of interview methods, documentary analysis method which consists of pertinent issues of CCT, and archival methods will be used to collate and gather data that are needed in order to fulfill this study. Qualitative method refers to a range of techniques which involves observations and intensive individual interviews which seeks to understand the experiences and practices of key informants and to locate them firmly in context. In this view, intensive interviews are appropriate when seeking to understand people`s motives and interpretations. Such guided conversations cannot be free of bias, although the influence of the researcher can be acknowledged. The research at hand is explanatory and descriptive in nature, since it seeks to elucidate the relationship and factors that affect among the variables.
Furthermore, the paper will use case study analysis of the basic education performance of the Philippines through multiple aid interventions in its 4Ps programme, confirms on how the aid-receiving country utilizes foreign aid to improve its education, particularly basic education, and undertakes an analysis of the importance of education on the recipient`s life. At this point, the efficiency of aid will be analyzed by the researcher through interviews from DSWD personnel involved in the implementation of the programme, key representatives of partner agencies of the Pantawid Pamilya, and beneficiaries of the programme in the study`s area of coverage by consolidating the data as primary source and will rely on the review of related literature from the secondary sources.
Data Collection Procedures
In order to gather information, interview and written method will be utilized. This study will collect data from recipient families of the 4Ps Conditional Cash Transfer and focal persons/ front lines during the implementation operations. This includes interviews with the DSWD`s officials who serve as front lines in operating the programme. Families of the 4Ps were identified based on the NHTS-PR. Interview is one of the most widespread methods used in doing research studies. An interview is a systematic way of talking and listening to people and is another way to collect data from individuals through conversations. The common steps in conducting an interview area, a researcher or an interviewer often uses open questions. However, this research will be utilizing both open and close-ended questions. Data is collected from the interviewee. The researcher needs to remember and record the interviewee’s views about the topic. The interview is the primary data for the study. With the use of interview, the researchers will be able to collect data, as well as to gain knowledge from the response of the implementing agency and 4Ps recipients towards the programme`s impact.
Another usage of interview is that it gives many ways for participants to get involved and talk about their point of view. In addition, the interviewees are able to discuss their perception and interpretation in regards to a given situation. It is their expression from their point of view. In conducting an interview; it is the major role of the researcher to ask questions. The questions ought to elicit valid response from respondents and the following questions to be asked by the interviewee must reach dual goals of motivating the respondent to give full and precise replies while avoiding biases stemming from social desirability, conformity, or other constructs of disinterest. There are many reasons to use interviews for collecting data and using it as a research instrument. The following reasons are: There is a need to attain highly personalized data, there are opportunities required for probing, a good return rate is important, respondents are not fluent in the native language of the country, or where they have difficulties with written language.
Among the beneficiaries, these are families that live in the poorest municipalities and barangays, as identified by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), whose economic conditions are equal or below the provincial poverty threshold, have children between 0-18 years old or have a pregnant woman, and are willing and able to comply with the conditions specified by the programme.
In obtaining the needed data for the study, the researcher made a questionnaire for the respondents. Two key informants will be interviewed, one is coming from the 4Ps recipient side and second will be the implementing agency officials that have the right knowledge or participated in the actual implementation of the 4Ps programme. Initially, the researcher will identify three 4Ps beneficiaries per barangay in Quezon city`s 2nd district, selected through Purposive Sampling in the said barangay and will ask permission if she can interview them. The researcher will interview the respondents personally. During the interview, the question is done in a Tagalog language to ensure the respondents` appropriateness of the response and to encourage them to answer questions wholeheartedly. Second, same procedure will be utilized in interviewing the DSWD front lines in the implementation of the 4Ps programme. Equally important, they were made to understand that their answering of the questions would not, in any way, affect or prejudice them. The researcher will set a specific time for the interview. In order to ensure the accuracy of the data, the whole interview conversation will be recorded using a cellphone. The interview will be transcribed and the data will be translated afterwards. Lastly, the researcher will draw a conclusion from these gathered data.
The process of data collection should not violate the intellectual property of the author of certain related literature that will be used. The researcher should respectfully cite the author or address properly the authority of the literature that could help in the research. Moreover, in conducting survey and interview, the researcher should ask permission first and discuss properly to his/her subjects their safety and security in giving details. Therefore, the researcher and the process of data collection shall observe and respect properly the guidelines and other ethical considerations in trying to access information.
Population and Sampling
During the initial stage of the 4Ps in 2008, the programme covered 160 cities and municipalities in 28 provinces in the 17 regions of the Philippines. As of May 2018, the programme has covered 41, 620 barangays in all 145 cities. Particularly, Quezon city who currently has 38,216 active household beneficiaries. Regardless of the several 4Ps beneficiaries in Quezon city, the researcher decided to observe and study the 4Ps recipients located in the 2nd district of Quezon city which comprises of Brgy. Bagong Silang, Batasan Hills, Commonwealth, Holy Spirit, and Payatas due to time and financial constraints, as well as, this is where the researcher found an inconsistency of the programme in meeting its objectives for some 4Ps recipients residing in this district.
Among the beneficiaries, these are families that reside in the poorest municipalities and barangays, as identified by the 2003 Small Area Estimates (SAE) and the Proxy Means Test (PMT) of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), whose economic conditions are equal or below the provincial poverty threshold, have children between 0-18 years old or have a pregnant woman, and are willing and able to comply with the conditions specified by the programme.
Provided that the study will utilize Process tracing method as it will be discussed on the latter area, the researcher will use Positional Criteria to identify desirable respondents; that is, analysis of key actors that are the focus of the study. An alternative approach of positional criteria is one that references reputational criteria in the selection of respondents. This approach does not involve defining the desired set of respondents according to the particular positions they hold, but rather according to the extent to which they are deemed influential in a particular political arena by their own peers. In other words, the researcher is open to indlude respondetns from any political arena or position who may have played an important role in the process of interest. In this study, the researcher will utilize Positional Criteria. The ff are the respondents` profile.:
Three 4Ps recipient coming from each barangay of Quezon city`s 2nd district with eligible aged children who were not able to meet the programme`s conditions. The place was chosen for the study due to budget and time constraints, as well as, this is where the researcher found an inconsistency of the programme in meeting its objectives for some 4Ps recipients residing in this district.
For the stakeholders, these are officials that have the right knowledge or is directly involved in the actual implementation of the 4Ps programme. In particular, these officials will be coming from the DSWD`s Pantawid Pamilya National Project Management Office (NPMO), which handles the day-to-day operations of the programme with the assistance from Regional Project Management Offices (RPMO) and in coordination with city/ municipal links such as barangay captain coming from the recipient community of the CCT.
The study used Random Sampling, which is a lottery method or draw by lots. Out of 41, 620 barangays in all 145 cities, the researcher come up with 5 barangays of Quezon city`s 2nd district as a result of the draw. Samples are taken from three respondents per barangay who met the above criteria, selected through Purposive Sampling. Patton argues, the power and logic of purposeful sampling lie in information-rich cases that needs in-depth analysis. Information-rich cases are those from which one can learn great deal about issues of central importance to the purpose of the inquiry and studying information-rich cases will lead to insights and in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, purposive sampling was introduced as a specifically qualitative approach to case selection. More importantly, Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling where subjective judgements play a role in the selection of the sample because the researcher decides which units of the population to include and therefore implies the researcher having a greater control of the selection process. Those who will be chosen will serve as the representatives of all barangays under district 2.
The researcher will use interview instrument with a combination of researcher-made open and close-ended questions formulated in mother tongue for the recipients, and English for the front lines of the implementing agency in conducting the study as the researcher found these tools useful and effective. The questionnaire guide is developed to collect primary data from beneficiaries, key personnel who serve as front lines in the implementation process. For the part of beneficiaries, it is structured in four sections: first part provides demographic information about the beneficiary respondent, part 2 confirms their involvement in the programme and perceived incentives/benefits from the Pantawid Pamilya, part 3 discusses the reason why the respondents failed to comply to the given set of conditions in education part 4 evaluates the awareness of the 4Ps, their perception towards the conditions given, and its impact on promoting education. The interview questions for key personnel were structured to assess the level of involvement of the respondent, their motivation to improve their performance, their perceptions and comments towards the non-compliance of their beneficiaries, their assessment towards the approaches used in addressing the importance of education in the 4Ps.
The study used Random Sampling, which is a lottery method or draw by lots. Out of 41, 620 barangays in all 145 cities, the researcher came up with 5 barangays of Quezon city`s 2nd district as a result of the draw, and secured samples from the respondents who met the above criteria, selected through Purposive Sampling.
The research will be utilizing the Process-Tracing Methodology. It is a useful tool for making causal conclusions in a single case study. Causal mechanisms are central to causal explanation, and that case studies analysis is the best able to examine the operation of causal mechanisms in detail. Furthermore, the process is fundamental as it allows the researcher to process and assess critical data. In the process tracing, the researcher examines histories, archival documents, interview transcripts, and other resources to view whether the causal process a theory hypothesizes in a case is in fact evident in the sequence and values of the intervening variables in that particular case. In turn it is the most suitable method for uncovering such causal mechanisms. Its main objective is to uncover causal mechanisms that ink independent and dependent variables to one another in a particular context.
In terms of the population and sampling, the process tracing method`s goal is to obtain the testimony of individuals who were mostly closely involved in the process of interest. The method requires focused attention to very specific actors, events, and processes to determine the mechanisms at work to begin with. The key issues to consider when drawing a sample using process tracing is to ensure that the most important and influential actors are included, and that testimony concerning the key process is collected from the central players involved.
The analysis of data completed by the researcher will be based on the outcome that will be conducted with the utilization of materials such as surveys and the information that were gathered coming from different sources. (i.e., secondary sources such as reports, article reviews, journals, news, and other existing literature and documentaries pertinent to the study, interview of focal person/ front lines of the program and family beneficiaries of the 4Ps) The researcher will be using Qualitative design by comparing and contrasting the collated data from these various findings. Furthermore, the data analysis will be presented in a descriptive approach in order for the researcher to summarize the gathered data and to also describe the key features of the research study.
Being the most common form of qualitative research, the study will use content analysis to examine the collated data. The qualitative data from the interviews will be subjected to content analysis and merged into coherent descriptions that supported information obtained through the questionnaires and will be woven in the findings and conclusions. More importantly, in relation to the gathered data from the interviews, during the actual interviews, the conversation between the participant and researcher will be recorded to secure the accuracy of the data. Subsequently, the recorded interview will be transcribed. The researcher will then read and re-read the transcription of the data collected in order to fully grasp the phenomenon.
The interview questionnaire will be the main instrument in this research. The questions that will be enclosed in the instrument is a mixture of open-ended and close-ended questions. The questionne guide For this study, a total of 4-5 4Ps beneficiaries will be interviewed.
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