Introduction In this essay
In this essay, leadership will be defined and critically analysed. A comprehensive leader profile from my workplace will be developed and critically analysed using transformational theory. This is the most important theory to critically analyse leadership, effectiveness and styles used by the leader. Firstly it’s important to gain an understanding of leadership and the theorist who have paved the way to the transformational leadership in nursing.
Leadership can develop up a variety of thoughts, reflections and images. These may include power, influence, followership, dynamic personality, charisma, goals, autocratic behaviour, innovation, cleverness, warmth and kindness. (Huber, 2017). There is an enormous selection of definitions can contribute to a greater understanding of the many factors that influence leadership, as well as provide different perspectives of the concept (Klan et al, 2016).A common theme that seems to run through the literature which is the view of the scribe is that ‘leadership involves influencing the attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and feelings of other people’ (Hargreaves, 2017). Over the years, researchers have explored different dimensions of leadership theories.
Clinical leader profile
Mrs Curran is a nursing manger appointed in 2015 after three years as a staff nurse. She has s networked with many staff nurse, from both mental health units and community teams based in the hospital. The scribe would view her as kind, hard worker, positive attitude, excellent communicator whom has developed the skill from her early years of a staff nurse, knowledgeable and hard worker. Through day to day experiences Mrs Currans has demonstrated good problem solving skills and extensive experience and knowledge in her speciality as well as in leadership and management. Further, as she is in charge of the mental health unit she manages the planning and coordination of the admission, discharged, staffing, roster, liaising with the multidisciplinary team and any day to day unforeseen problems that occur in an acute area. Motivation, direction, controlling and evaluation of the staff performance are some of the leader’s responsibilities.
On the subject of to leadership theorist, the scribe was able to review the available literature which has provides a wealth of examples of authors advocating leadership as an essential quality in nursing. Since reviewing the literature it established the scribe theory that the transformation leadership style was the most effective style. For instance the first theory was introduced by James V. Downton (1973) he studied the concept of charisma and its influence in religious leadership. Subsequent Burns (1978) examined the different leadership models in detail. According to Burns, most of these models focused on a transactional process, focusing on different exchanges between the leader and the subordinates. Burns also distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership, feeling that one prohibits the other and that they are at opposite ends of a continuum (Gellis, 2001; Judge and Piccolo, 2004). On the other hand more recently the literature has moved towards the view of good leaders demonstrate both transactional and transformational characteristics (Judge and Piccolo, 2017), requiring a merging of both styles complementing and enhancing each other (Bryant, 2003; Rolfe, 2011).
This suggests that transformational leaders can in?uence their followers, by simply inspiring them to have a sense of purpose, providing them with a vision, and then motivating them to achieve their goals and the goals of the team (Bass, 1990; Ho?man, Bynum, Piccolo, & Sutton, 2011 Northouse 2016). Hoch est. el 2016 views that transformation leadership model is characterised by combining four key elements to shift followers’ beliefs, values and attitudes through individual, personal attention: individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and idealised influences which is agreement with Judge and Piccolo (2017). The scribe will expand more about key elements later in this piece as these are essential feature of transformation leadership, which distinguishes it from other leadership styles, is it focuses on refining individual relationships with followers (Shair est el 2018). The scribe has experiences of being both lead and being a leader would be in agreement with Hoch est el 2016 view of transformation leader ship and would have used it her there practice as a leader. Saphr 2015 also proposes that transformational leaders have gained a lot of sizeable attention in recent years for being a leadership style that truly inspires teams and can help to ‘transform’ certain workplace cultures. Transforming work place culture is crucial for any nurse. Change can happen from day to day activates to organization change such as the Vision for change document 2006 which is paving the way for change in mental health in Ireland. While Northouse (2012) agrees with his pointed that transformational leadership theory allows leaders to change people and organisations. Alternatively Yasir and Mohamad (2016) contended that transformational leadership requires the principles of ethical leadership. The scribe has come to the conclusion Sahpr 2015 is correct transformation leader is the way forward for change.
Secondly the application of a transformational leadership style has been associated with increased job satisfaction, increased staff well-being, decreased workplace stress, burnout, and staff turnover (Clavelle et al. 2012, Cummings et al. 2010, Weberg 2010, Choi est al 2016). This aspect of transformation leadership could help nurse’s turnover. Turnover is costly to all level of organizations regardless of its nature and usually has a negatively affected in the scribe opinion.
Transformational leaders motivate nurses by appealing to moral values and provide supportive environments where responsibility is shared (Doody & Doody 2012). Transformation leadership can positively impact mental health nurse with job satisfaction and there workplace that employ them by impacting how nurses experience their work and their workplace (Molloy and Penprase 2010; AbuAruib and Akghamdi 2012). In addition Doherty and Danylchuk 2016 suggest that transformational leadership is of great significance because transformational leadership helps with the increase of satisfaction and commitment of staff through giving impetus and vision. Other authors for instance (Bass, Riggio, 2008; Marshall, 2008) all noted that transformational leaders have a tendency to create a working environment with satisfied and motivated employees.Authors Wan Omar and Hussin (2013) aimed to establish the connection between inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration with job satisfaction. A positive correlation was found between intellectual stimulation and job satisfaction, while individualized consideration was negatively correlated with the same variable. On the other hand Renjith 2015 states that Inspiration and motivation are two major components of transformational leadership. It can motivate the employee to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization while inspiring them to achieve their own aims. Thus supporting the individual needs with the organizational needs is a vital strategy of inspirational motivation. The transformational leaders strive to nurture the spirit of teamwork and commitment. A transformational leader clarifies the vision, mission and strategic goals of the organization this create a strong sense of purpose among the employees.
In the context of a transformational leadership framework, Mrs Currans treats all staff with respect, equally and utilised her communication skills to the whole team by doing this the leader is able to build trusting relationship with her staff. The leader also involves all the staff in the vision of the organization. Consequently, the self-assurance of the staff is gained. The leader is concerned about the values and needs of her staff as she routinely holds individual meetings with each staff member in her office, asking each one of them about their feelings, needs and problems and tries to address them. The leader delegates as many responsibilities and goals to staff, therefore the staff feel accountable to work harder and more effectively. Resulting in all staff to be more motivated and work hard to accomplish the goals and tasks. Also during these meetings the leader, work strategies and any other new ideas from the staff. Subsequently, all staff is motivated to be a part of the team, working hard and effectively for the vision of the organisation. These positive features of transformation leadership demonstrated by Ms Currans has led to low staff turnover and job satisfactory since there has been job satisfactory it has been noted improved patient care.
Thus leading to the link between transformation leadership and job satisfactory, Edwin A. Locke’s range of affect theory (1976) is perhaps the most famous job satisfaction model. The main principle of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Additionally, the theory states that how much one value a given aspect of work (e.g., the degree of autonomy in a position) controls how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When a person values a particular aspect of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively and negatively compared to one who does not value that aspect of the job. Equally Van Bogaert est el (2010) studied the effects of nursing environments and burnout on job satisfaction and quality of care. Nursing management was positively related to perceived quality of care and staff satisfaction in this study while other studies found relationships with medication errors (Van Bogaert est el2014) and staff levels of well-being, burnout and turnover intention (Weber, 2010; AbuAlRub ;Alghamdi, 2012). In their review Wong est el(2013) also notes a relationship between nurses’ relational leadership styles and lower levels of mortality rates and medication errors.
In recent studies it has revealed that nursing staff turnover remains a major problem in emerging economies, Adhikari 2014, Patel VM est al. (2016). Nurses are the frontline service providers in most healthcare systems globally. An adequate staffing level with a stable workforce brings many benefits to health services: staff, organizations and the people who are being cared for (Buchan 2010). RN4CAST survey published in 2011 found that 42% of Irish nurses suffered from high levels of emotional exhaustion. Meanwhile, 33.2% of those surveyed reported suffering medium levels of emotional exhaustion. Mc Cathey 2013 suggests that nurse supervisors and managers play a significant role in developing and maintaining a positive workplace environment. Therefore, nurse mangers need to identifying strategies that enhance nurse retention by creating more positive workplace environments such as good leadership styles .Twig and McCullugh (2014) state that “nurses receiving support by expression of respect and recognition by the nurse manager can be more important than financial rewards. Walumbwa and Hartnell (2011) stated that similar to any other organization, the organizational effectiveness of health sector heavily depends on the leadership. Leader and style of leadership plays a vital role in organizational success. Style of leadership performs a considerable function in workers job satisfaction and to job performance. Employees with greater job satisfaction and commitment have higher job performance. In addition Mujkuc est el 2014 carried out research ; “whether transformational leadership, in contrast to other contemporary leadership styles, contributes to higher employee satisfaction levels transformational leadership, compared to other contemporary leadership styles, contributes to higher levels of employee satisfaction”. The main hypothesis of their research confirmed that, transformational leadership, compared to other contemporary leadership styles, contributes to higher levels of employee satisfaction.
The view of scribe is also in agreed with Das (2012) who believes the role of transformational leadership in enhancing employees’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction cannot be denied. The effect of transformational leadership is important for individuals who work in rapidly changing environments (for example, emergency departments to icu to acute mental health inpatient ward) to strengthen their organizational commitment and job satisfaction. As mentioned by Mc Carthey 2013 that strategies need to be in places for effective transformation leadership. The scribe is in agreement with the literature and believes Burns (2008) four elements are they key to an effective leader. Norton 2016 provided knowledge about each of these which is going to be future explored
Individualized consideration is the first of four factor of transformational leadership style. It is the inclusion of people into the transformation process of an organization (Conger, 2014). The leader actively listens to concerns and needs, offering support and empathy, supporting full actualisation (Northouse, 2016), by the leader acting in an advisory capacity.
Intellectual Stimulation the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and lobbies followers’ ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. The leader cultivates and develops people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to achieve their goals
Inspirational Motivation – this is where the leader speaks a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate positivity about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose so they are to be motivated to achieving the goals. Purpose and meaning to the goal provide the energy that drives everyone forward. The core aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the goal understandable, accurate, powerful and engaging. The followers are willing to devote more effort in their tasks; they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and ability in their goals.
Idealized Influence – Provides a role model for high ethical behaviour, installs pride, gains respect and trust. It is fundamentally a leader setting a high moral and ethical conduct standard. This gives a role model for the followers, nurses, to look up to and try to follow. (Northouse, 2016).
To summaries leaders who display an authentic and transformational leadership style allow for the recognition of needed change and are capable of guiding change by inspiring followers and creating a sense of commitment. The scribe feels these qualities allow the nurse leader to feel more comfortable and confident when engaging in the development of themselves and those around them. Leadership is one of the most important skills in nurse managers. It is a process of interaction between the leader and the staff, influencing them positively toward achieving the goals and tasks of the organisation. It is based on ideas of empowering, inspiring and motivating the staff toward working together to achieve the organisation’s goals and vision. A transformational leader who acts as a role model can influence the staff and make them accountable for their own practice. In addition high levels of competency can be gained by using transformational leadership skills and the quality of patient care outcomes will be improved as a result. The scribe also agrees that staff development, commitment and job satisfaction can be improved by using transformational leadership skills. These are motivation, inspiration, and empowerment, building a trusting relationship between the leader and the staff, sharing power and decision-making and rewarding staff for quality and job achievement.