EFFECT OF PROPER TENDERING PROCESS ON PERFORMANCE OF COUNTY GOVERNMENTS IN KENYA
EFFECT OF PROPER TENDERING PROCESS ON PERFORMANCE OF COUNTY GOVERNMENTS IN KENYA: (A CASE STUDY OF HOMABAY COUNTY GOVERNMENT)
A Research Project Submitted to the Department of Social Science in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Award of the Masters’ Degree in Procurement and Logistics Management at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThis chapter highlights on the background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, objectives of the study, research questions and the scope of the study.1.1 Background to the StudyGlobally, tendering is recognized as a process of making an offer, bid or proposal, or expressing interest in response to an invitation or request for tender. Organizations seek other businesses to respond to a particular need, such as the supply of goods and services, and select an offer or tender that meets their needs and provides the best value for money (Wogube, 2011). Tender is any offer or proposal made for acceptance; as, a tender of a loan, of service, or of friendship; a tender of a bid for a contract. An offer, either of money to pay a debt, or of service to be performed, in order to save a penalty or forfeiture, which would be incurred by non-payment or non-performance; as, the tender of rent due, or of the amount of a note, with interest (CIPS, 2005).
Public organizations are usually legally obliged to release tenders for works and services. Regulations vary on whether or not to necessarily award the tender to the lowest bidder, or to award it at all. Within the organization, there are procurement methods by quotation which is done via quotation forms, open tender which is done via media advertisement and closed tender which requires pre- qualifications before the award of the tender. Procurement of the tender has got a systematic process that is followed in determining the tender award (Thomas, 2010).
Kabaj (2003) contends that an efficient public procurement system is vital to the advancement of African countries and is a concrete expression of their national commitments to making the best possible use of public resources. Equally, Kakwezi and Nyeko (2010) argues that the procurement departments of public entities in Kenya are faced with the problem of not having enough information about the procurement procedure, its inputs, outputs, resource consumption and results, and are therefore unable to determine their efficiency and effectiveness. This implies that such a problem requires establishment of clear procurement procedures and performance standards. Performance standards when adopted can provide the decision-makers in the procurement department with unbiased and objective information regarding the performance of the procurement function. (Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005).
In Beijing, according to the new circular strengthening the bidding and Tendering process of January, 2012, the establishment of fair, competitive and transparent bidding and tendering process is essential for market oriented reforms. Especially for the construction Industry (Beijing Regulation No 12 of 2011).
According to Mufumba (2002), Councilors in Uganda were pushed out of Tendering process. They were not allowed to get involved in the tendering process to avoid Possibility of compromising their supervisory role. The move was to eliminate the possibility shoddy work, since councilors were to find themselves in a position where they have to grill one of their own. In Russia, the Tendering system has its weaknesses supplier corruption. Corruption is invariably associated with Russia’s business environment and in procurement and tendering of huge projects around the world. Although it remains a major problem.
In Russia corruption is being tackled and the business environment is improving. Businesses in Russia can mitigate their risks through simple steps and by being alert. (Business, Corruption and Russia, March 2012).
In South Africa, the tendering process was introduced to eradicate rampant unethical Practices that were observed in the country. The government was to tighten the tender system in South Africa’s municipalities in order to fight unethical practices, while prosecuting officials who abuse the system.” The tender system in municipalities needed a total turnaround”. (Parliamentary service delivery report, 2010).
In Nigeria, Mbachu, and Domingo, (2014) stated that establishing and prioritizing the factors that may influence the final contract price when responding to a call for tenders is crucial for proper risk analysis and reliable forecasting. This could make or mar the ability to achieve expected profit margin in an era of lump sum fixed price contracts where clients often contest variation claims. Ezekiel (2010) opines that there are several factor such as bid price, completion period and quality of work that determines the success of contractors tender while bid price was identified as the most important. More so, Onukwube (2002) asserted that since the lowest responsive bidder wins the project in most cases in Nigeria, some contractors’ tender price are not competitive as a result of some factors which affects their tender price, this includes amount of project definition, understanding of the scope, capacity to undertake the project, etc. With this background, contractor have to rely on effective pricing method in order to translate potential business into reality of successful project especially if their business are carried out within emerging economies of developing countries such as Nigeria.
In Botswana, The main aim of the Botswana procurement policy is to ensure that the system is not corrupt. Nevertheless, a system of granting of preferences is permitted in the Botswana tendering system. As race is downplayed as a factor in Botswana society, such preferences do not depend on race, disability or gender (Jodie, 2004). In Botswana the system of preference is based on whether the consultancy or contracting company is owned by Botswana citizens. Only in the case of disasters or calamities are certain other preferences permitted: The Botswana government draws a distinction between contractors and consultants. In order to qualify for the preferences, consultants and contractors are required to register on separate service provider databases, and to obtain a registration number (World bank, 2008). The Botswana government recognizes 3 categories of tenders: restricted tender – i.e. tenders reserved for Botswana citizens only, up to a maximum value of P4 million (four million pula), National competitive bid – i.e. where citizens of other countries may bid but preference may be granted according to the shareholding or composition of the tendering consortium, for contracts of up to a maximum value of P50 million, open competitive bid – i.e. for contracts of over P50 million no reservation or preference is permitted, and international competition is encouraged. (Shash and Abdul-Hadi, 1992) Before being allowed to tender for government contracts in Botswana, a consultant must register on the PP&ADB database of consultants.
In Tanzania, tendering procedures take too long to be performed without clear known reasons. Evaluation of tenders takes several weeks, for both big and small projects, delaying the award and approval of contract services. In many cases, tender evaluation durations exceed tender validity periods. As a result, the rate of construction projects execution is very low. For instance, about 40%-50% of the budget allocated to the construction projects was used due to the delays in tender evaluation process. In addition, some construction projects are purely and simply cancelled because of excessive delays. (World Bank Group, 2007).
In Kenya, to manage effectively and more efficiently the tendering process, procuring entities through the existing legal framework are required to firstly consolidate departmental procurement plans to provide the entity’s corporate procurement plan which before its implementation must get the accounting officer’s approval. Basheka (2008) counsels that a tendering process is an instrument for implementation of the budget and should be prepared by the user departments with a view to avoiding or minimizing excess votes in the entities’ budgets and to ensure that procurements do not proceed unless there are funds to pay for them. This implies that all procurement plans must be well integrated into the budget process based on the indicative budget as appropriate and in compliance with the procurement law (Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005).
Public Procurement often constitutes the largest domestic market in developing countries. Depending on how it is managed, the public procurement system can thus contribute to the economic development of these countries (PPOA, 2012). Indeed, public procurement is the principal means through which governments meet developmental needs such as the provision of physical infrastructure and the supply of essential medicines (PPOA, 2010). Again, many governments use Public Procurement to support the development of domestic industries, overcome regional economic imbalances, and support minority or disadvantaged communities. Because the deployment of the Public Procurement System to pursue these developmental goals entails governmental exercise of enormous discretion, Public Procurement is often an extremely controversial subject matter. (World Bank Group, 2007).
The Public Procurement Tendering System in Kenya has evolved from a crude system with no regulations to an orderly legally regulated Procurement System. The Government’s Procurement System was originally contained in the Supplies Manual of 1978, which was supplemented by circulars that were issued from time to time by the Treasury (GOK, 2010). The Director of Government Supply Services was responsible for ensuring the proper observance of the provisions of the Manual (GOK, 2004). The Manual created various tender boards for adjudication of tenders and their awards. The Authority shall issue guidelines on the format of procurement documents to be adopted for approvals and the documentation of the procurement procedure (PPOA, 2012)
A review of the country’s public procurement tendering systems was undertaken in 1999 and established that: There was no uniform procurement tendering system for the public sector as a whole, it did not have sanctions or penalties against persons who breached the regulations in the Supplies Manual, other than internal disciplinary action. Consequently application of the rules was not strict and many of the norms were not followed, the Supplies Manual did not cover procurement of works, the dispute settlement mechanisms relating to the award procedures as set out in the Manual were weak and unreliable for ensuring fairness and transparency, Records of procurement transactions in many cases were found to be inaccurate or incomplete or absent, which led to suspicions of dishonest dealings at the tender boards (GOK, 2010).
The systems had other institutional weaknesses that not only undermined its capacity for carrying out their mandates effectively but also led to a Public perception that the Public sector was not getting maximum value for money spent on procurement (GOK, 2010) .In view of the above shortcomings it was found necessary to have a law to govern the Procurement tendering system in the Public sector and to establish the necessary institutions to ensure that all procurement entities observe the provisions of the law for the purpose of attaining the objectives of an open tender system in the sector (World Bank Group, 2008). Consequently the establishment of the Exchequer and Audit (Public Procurement) Regulations 2001 which created the Public Procurement Directorate (PPD) and the Public Procurement Complaints, Review and Appeals Board (PPCRAB).
The Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005 was enacted and it became operational on 1st January, 2007 with the gazettement of the Public Procurement and Disposal Regulations, 2006 (PPOA, 2009).The Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005 created the Public Procurement Oversight Authority (PPOA), the Public Procurement Advisory Board (PPAB) and the continuance of the Public Procurement Complaints, Review and Appeals Board as the Public Procurement Administrative Review Board (PPARB) (PPOA, 2006) and this reforms continued to the formation of Public procurement and Regulatory Authority (PPRA) being the current body with subsequent formation of Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Act (2015).
It is also important to note that, in the past the quality of service delivery in Public entities was wanting. According to the World Bank Group’s (2007) country assessment report, the quality of service in the Kenya Public Sector was very low prior to 2003 due to inadequate accountability and responsibility, as well as poor governance. Poor management of the public assets led to an almost total collapse of infrastructure, decline in productivity and an increase in poverty (close to 56 % of the population were living with incomes of less than US$2 per day) (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2010).
Some public servants would also not attend to their duties diligently and it was common to find members of the public waiting to be served while there was no one in the office. The poor service delivery was also due to unclear direction and non-existent strategic plans. Where plans were present, there was no effective implementation and monitoring system. The lack of accountability was caused by an organizational culture characterized by negative values among staff (Republic of Kenya, 2003; 2004; 2006).There was relatively low discipline in management and some of the enterprises that were previously successful went into liquidation such as, the Kenya National Assurance and the Kenya Taxis Company, KENATCO (Republic of Kenya, 2005). All costs, the Government needed a turnaround be as to improve the situation of events. According to Akech (2011) a more coordinated planning, implementation and close monitoring of government tendering was necessary.
The Kenyan Governance system is made up of two interdependent main governance blocks, the National Government and the County Government which came after into being the implementation of the 2010 Constitution. Homa Bay County Government is one of the Counties created through the Kenyan Constitution of 2010. Homa Bay Constitution is one of such counties created after the implementation of the 2010 constitution. The public procurement involves massive use of resources and there is often a temptation of unethical behaviors. These unethical practices include the unlawful enrichment of the public officials and their friends or families using public resources. This leads to wastage of the public resources and procurement of substandard goods that do not serve the citizens appropriately. The unethical behaviors among the public procurement officials is determined by the organizational environment, top management, limited productive resources, lack of intellectual support in the organization, internal environment, legal environment, political environment and socio-economic environments. The lack of clear timelines on when the procurement system should be completed in terms of timely procurement, contract execution and payments makes the process wasteful and bureaucratic. The pay of the procurement officials is another challenge in the procurement profession. In this context, Mutua (2010) notes that the procurement professionals’ reward (pay) affected the extent to which they adhered to the ethical code of ethics. The better pay for the procurement officials discourages unethical practices during the tendering process. The organization’s procurement department endeavors to select of appropriate suppliers and contractors to promote good procurement practices with due regard to sustainable, ethical, purchasing standards and whole life costing. Homa Bay County is youth affirmative and hence it has available tender and procurement opportunities to the youth under the Government initiative to empower these special constituencies in nation building. The Strategic Plan, recently reviewed, has remained a guiding document upon which annual work plans and performance contract targets are developed (Ndegwa, 2014).
1.2 Statement of the ProblemTender means a request drawn by a procuring entity for offers or quotation to be made by supplier’s service providers, contractors or buyer. The aim of tendering process is to ensure that the Government funds are used in the most efficient and economical way so that the best value for money is attained through quality goods and services which are delivered timely and promptly. Efficiency of open tendering process is ensured through proper laws, rules and regulations which provide the foundation for open tendering procedures and regulation. (World Bank Group, 2008).
It is evident that as opposed to the efficiency expectations of the tendering process it is found out that the county government is still receiving inferior and substandard goods and services, while delayed of goods and service is becoming rampant. Regrettably, the emphasis is much placed on procurement of physical goods than services to the extent proper rules, laws and regulations are not effectively adhered to. Owing to this reason, some contractors (suppliers) handled tenders because they know some people who are responsible for awarding the tender but not because they are responsive to the tender awarding process. Therefore, government loses a lot of money through inferior and substandard goods as well receive complaints from suppliers about the variation in criteria and practice of awarding the tenders. Furthermore, awarding criteria are not well known. Only the successful firm is informed of being awarded a particular tender. The unsuccessfully ones are not informed the reasons behind their failure. Audit Report (2016). Yateri (2005) argues that PPRA requires the procuring entity to inform all the bidders the result of a particular tender and the reasons behind the results. Public procurement policies are based on the need to make the best possible use of public funds, whilst conducting all procurement with honest and fairness. This is possible if the tendering process is effective. The researcher found that, tendering processes in public sector is not effective, leading to lower value for money for the goods procured or services offered. It’s through this facts that the researcher seeks to establish the effect of proper tendering process on performance of county Governments with reference of Homabay County.1.3 General Objective of the StudyThe main objective of the study is to establish the effect of proper tendering process on performance of county Governments with reference of Homabay County Government.
1.3.1 Specific Objectives of the StudyThis study will be guided by the following objectives:
To determine the role of proper records management in the tendering process in Homa Bay County.
To establish the role of staff ethics in the tendering process in Homa Bay County.
To find out the relationship between staff competency and the tendering process in Homa Bay County.
1.4 Research QuestionsThe study seeks to answer the following questions:-
What is the role of proper records management in the tendering process in Homa Bay County?
What is the role of staff ethics in the tendering process in Homa Bay County?
What is the relationship between staff competency and performance in the tendering process in Homa Bay County?
1.5 Significance of the StudyThis research will be useful to all the Government ministries if adopted more so by county government because this is where there are many challenges on the tendering process. The academia community will benefit from the results of the study as it will serve as a reference point on empirical data. It is intended that the findings from his study will generate knowledge for the academia community. The study findings will be relevant in equipping policy makers and regulators in the county government with information that will empower them to be in a position to improve in areas relating to service quality considerations in policy formulation.
The gaps that will be identified from the study will create room for further research in service quality and the tendering process in the public institutions. To the researcher the study will enable her to be awarded with a master’s degree for career advancement because this will contribute to the knowledge either theoretically or methodologically in the long term benefit which will result from this study will lead to the researcher making positive contributions and development to the surrounding.
1.6 Scope of the StudyThe study will be conducted the Homabay County headquater through descriptive research method by the questionnare method from Jan 2018 to July 2018. The choice of specific area for study is due to the proximity of the researcher.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWThis chapter comprises of theoretical literature, empirical literature, and conceptual framework which clearly stipulates the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
2.1Theoretical LiteratureTheoretical review comprises of formulated theories and the prepositions about concepts and relationships. The researcher will aim to show how the study in question is related to the theoretical background the researcher may also choose to deal with a few selected concepts from a particular theory (Mugenda ; Mugenda, 2005)2.2.1 Organizational TheoryOrganizational theory within business and management is influenced by a variety of other Researchs and disciplines including psychology, sociology, political science, engineering and economics (Hatch 2006; Pfeffer, 1997). There is need to understand the organizational theory, arising from the management insight to explain of the organizational behavior, design and structures. The supply chain relationships amongst enterprises have led to a fundamental study of the organization theory at the inter-organizational level.
Organizational theory has led to a broad application of various management practices and studies. The application of the organizational theory to supply chain management (Ketchen ; Hult, 2007) separately is becoming more established. However, its influence and relationship to environmental management or green procurement has not been reviewed extensively. To further develop this Research, there is need to review the literature of green procurement in the context of various organizational theories. The organizational theory will guide the study in investigating how the various levels of leadership and management influence the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
2.2.2 Diffusion Theory
The first theory is Diffusion theory. The diffusion of innovations approach, as outlined by Rogers (2003), was used to expand understanding of reasons for adoption, usage patterns, and communication objectives that are and can be met by technology in a developing country. This includes how and why an innovation is adopted, and especially the unique reinvention of an innovation to the changing needs of the individual.
Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system (Rogers, 2003). An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived to be new by an individual or other unit of adoption. Communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995).This model suggests that there are three main sources influencing the adoption and diffusion of an innovation, namely perceptions of innovation characteristics, characteristics of the adopter, and contextual factors. Studying how innovation occurs. Rogers (1995) argued that it consists of four stages: invention, diffusion (or communication) through the social system, time and consequences. The information flows through networks. The nature of networks and the roles opinion leaders play in them determine the likelihood that the innovation will be adopted.
Innovation diffusion research has attempted to explain the variables that influence how and why users adopt a new information medium, such as the EMR. Opinion leaders exert influence on audience behaviour via their personal contact, but additional intermediaries called change agents and gatekeepers are also included in the process of diffusion. Five adopter categories are: (1) innovators, (2) early adopters, (3) early majority, (4) late majority, and (5) laggards. This model has been applied to study the adoption of various information technologies in healthcare. However, the does not provide information on how to assess innovation characteristics (Gagnon et al., 2010). This theory aims to explain the need for training employee to acquire the necessary skills to cater for the ever changing needs in the environment and innovation.
2.2.3 Scientific management theory
To investigate the influence of staff training, the study will be based on scientific management theory. The theory basically consists of the works of Fredrick Taylor. Fredrick Taylor started the era of modern management in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; Taylor consistently sought to overthrow management by rule of thumb and replace it with actual timed observations leading to the one best practice, Watson (2002). He advocated for the systematic training of workers in the one best practice rather than allowing them personal discretion in their tasks. He further believed that the workload would be evenly distributed within between the workers and management with management performing the science and the workers performing the labour, each group doing the work for which it was best suited. Taylor’s strongest positive legacy was the concept of breaking a complex task down into a number of sub tasks and optimizing the performance of the subtasks hence, his stop watch measured time trials (Osdorne,M.J & Rubinstein, 1990). As a result he proposed four underlying principles of management.
2.3 Conceptual Framework
Kothari (2004) defined a conceptual framework as the visual or written product, one that explains either graphically or in narrative form the key factors, concepts, or variables and the presumed relationships. The variables of the study will consist of one dependent variable (procurement performance) and three independent variables (Records management, staff ethics and staff competency).
Independent VariablesDependent Variables
Manual records Management
Manual records Management
Effectiveness of operations
Effectiveness of operations
Staff perceptions and attitudes
Staff perceptions and attitudes
Employee skills and development
Employee skills and development
Figure 2. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Conceptual Framework
2.4 Empirical Literature2.4.1 Procurement staff competency on tendering processAccording to Landale (2006) training is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills by the Team who participate in the public tendering process for efficient and effective service delivery. Through training participants acquire new sets of values and attitudes. The appreciation of their inherent but untapped potential and reinforce their self-confidence and sense of autonomy as opposed to dependency (Osborn et al 2003). For any project to be implemented successfully people involved must be trained. The training offered must be of quality to ensure effective implementation of tendering process. If this is lacking then the tendering process will be adversely affected (Husband and Bolles 2007). According to the Public Procurement and Disposal Act 2005 section (7) procurement shall be staffed with procurement professionals whose qualifications have been recognized by the authority. The authority shall facilitate the establishment of an examination body for procurement professionals and shall ensure support for their professional association. These means that learning is knowledge and knowledge is power (Ahmed, Irfan, and Parasuraman, 1994). This study aimed at investigating whether road constructing agencies trained their staff and the influence of the training on effectiveness of tendering process.
2.4.2 Record Management in Tendering Process in Public Sector
Record Management is a must if there is to be good governance in public entities in Tendering process. In cases where records are poorly managed companies have lost a lot of Revenue though county business claims. if not well managed could lead to Business claims or Poor governance. A survey had shown that many companies still have poor electronic Record management Practices, which could result in business insurance claims if they are taken to court (Ahmed, Irfan, and Parasuraman, 1994). According to research by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), One third of organizations have no systems in place to manage or record electronic documents. Good electronic record keeping could prevent firms from having to claim on their business insurance policies by avoiding court cases in the first place. Where Companies are taken to court, commercial legal protection can provide cover for Compensation and awards and legal defense (Ahmed, Irfan, and Parasuraman, 1994).
According to the Public Procurement and Disposal Act 2005 section 45(1), it states what should be kept and maintained in tendering process. Procurement records shall be kept by all Public Procurement entities. Procurement entity shall keep records for each procurement for at least six years after the resulting contract was entered into or, if no contract resulted after the procurement proceedings were terminated. The records for procurement must include the description of the goods, works or services being procured, if a procedure other that open tendering was used, the reasons for doing so, Copy of the advertisement as it appeared in the newsletter or publication, the name and address of the person marking the submission, the price and the summary of the other terms and conditions of the tender, proposal or quotation, a summary of the evaluation and Comparison of tenders, proposals or quotations, including the evaluation criteria used, if the Procurement proceedings were terminated without resulting in a contract, the explanation of Why they were terminated, a copy of every document the act requires the procuring entity to Prepare and such other information or documents as are prescribed (Kombo and Tromp, 2011). Keeping the above record are vital because after a contract has been awarded or the Procurement proceedings have been terminated, the procurement entity shall on request, Make the records available for the procurement available to a person who submitted the Tender, proposal or quotation or, if direct procurement was used, a person with whom the Procurement entity was negotiating. The procurement entity may charge a fee for making the Records available but the fee shall not exceed the costs of making the records available.
2.4.3 Staff EthicsAccording to Lysons and Farrington (2012), ethics refer to principles of conduct governing an individual or group; concern for what is right or wrong, good or bad. Ethical behaviour in procurement performance is of particular relevance in the twenty – first century, because of stakeholder pressure (Pedersen, 2009). This has led to the call for ethics in humanitarian procurement as organizations are realizing that ethics can lead to improved operational and financial performance (Carter, 2005). Supply chain managers, more than any other group within a firm, encounter daily situations that put ethics to the test and while supply chain managers can be viewed as “organizing the optimal flow of high – quality, value – for money materials or components from a suitable set of innovative suppliers” (Wagner, 2003), they are also exposed to a range of selling techniques, some of which are less ethical than others. For instance, compromising in ethics to create short cuts in processes or to generate less review during the audit process is costing companies their reputations, as well as profits. Thus, understanding ethics and its impact on procurement performance is a key responsibility of supply managers (Eltantawy, Fox and Guinipero, 2009).
2.5 Research GapFrom various literatures a lot has been done on Tender evaluation as its clear from the empirical literature. It’s through this literature that this study is anchored to clearly establish the factors affecting tendering process on procurement performance.CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Research DesignThe research design is a set of composition elements categorised in varied itemization providing an illustration on how a given study is to be undertaken (Mugenda ; Mugenda, 2003). The study will seek to adopt descriptive research design for the observations and research conduction as it is essential and relevant to the study subject. The design will consider all objectives enlisted in the study for the observation.
3.2 Target PopulationThe study target population will be 100 persons, who are employees from county and national government. The target population is the summed composition of the observable leads into determining the subject effect onto the area of focus (Kothari, 2003).
3.3 Sampling FrameThe sample size in a study is essential in providing an overall estimation impact of occurrence on the particular subject under consideration (Kothari, 2003). The study will select 50% of the target population for the research observation and pooling of data for analysis.
3.4 Sample size and Sampling TechniqueThe study will seek to apply the stratified random sampling in the selection of the sample size of 50 individuals. This is mainly attributed to its convenience and too the spectrum of focus by the study.
3.5 Instruments of Data CollectionThe study in pooling enough data for analysis, it will apply a questionnaire with developed questions that include factorial objectives and too the likert scaling to measure the extents in various statements. A questionnaire is an important instrument for research subjects as it does in composition capture the study elements for observation that are to be analysed when collected (Kothari, 2003).
3.6 Data Collection ProcedureThe study will distribute the questionnaires to respondents chosen in the sample for study on 5 working days and collected on the last day from the day of distribution. The unavailable respondents will require the researcher to book an agreeable appointment for the purposes of the study’s questionnaire filling and will be collected as possible within the set time limit as indicated in the study scope.
3.7 Pilot TestThe study will conduct a pilot test study on 5 individuals for the purposes of reliability and too availability of the necessary data for research.
3.8 Data Processing and AnalysisData processing is essential component in getting to come up with a realization of facts of the covered objectives and questions through the analysis of the data collected (Kothari, 2003). This is crucial as it leads to the understanding of the subject study through realized findings and outcomes. This study will seek to adopt a linear regression model to cover the contents s noted in the objectives of the study.
3.8.1Analytical ModelThe study will seek to adopt the following model:
Y=?+?1X1+ ?2X2+ ?3X3+ ?4X4+?
Y is the County Government’s Performance, ? is the autonomous constant, ? is the slope of the equation, and ? is the error with independent variables X1, X2, X3, and X4 described as follows:
X1 is the effects of tendering process measured as the cumulative factors affecting the tendering process;
X2 is the role of proper records management measured as the indicators enhancing efficiency and effectiveness in procurement performance;
X3 is the role of staff ethics measured as the aspects of affecting tendering process on service delivery;
X4 is the relationship between staff competency and tendering process measured as determining relationship improving procurement performance.
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Section A: Background information of the respondent
1. Gender of the respondent
2. Age of respondent in years
41- 50 ()
51 years and above()
3. Marital Status of the respondent
iii) Divorced /separated ()
iv). Widows ()
4. Education Level of the respondent.
ii) Secondary ()
5. Have you been involved in Tendering Process?
6. If you have how long have you with department?
(i) Below two years()
(ii) Between 2 to 4 years()
(iii) Between 4 to 8 years()
(iv) Above 8 years()
Section B: Records Management
7. To what extent do the following records management factors affect tendering process?
Records management Very great extent Great extent Average extent Small extent Not at all
Filing System Available It takes little time to retrieve required information Reliability of the filing system available The filing system available is easy to everyone and accurate Timeliness of the system when retrieving documents The is integration of the filing system available with entire tendering activities Section C: Staff Ethics.
8. To what extent do the following factors of staff ethics affect tendering process?
Staff ethics factors To very great extent Great extent Average extent Small extent Not at all
Employee behaviour is enhanced towards staff ethics Employee communication The organization provides employees with a guiding manual on staff ethics Attitudes and perceptions on the transparency of the tendering process The organization creates awareness on good staff ecthicsEmployee dependence on making decisions
Supervisor act as role model in enhancing staff ethics Section D: Staff Competency
9. To what extent do the following staff competency factors affect tendering process?
Factors To very great extent Great extent Average extent Small extent Not at all
Employee skills and development Employee training and seminars are organized towards improving tendering process Employee qualification determines the responsibility of every party in the tendering process Employees have the capacity to minimize variances and errors during the tendering process Employee specialization determines their responsibility in the tendering process Employees are educated on the best practices during the tendering process