S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.
1 ABSTRACT 6
2 INTRODUCTION 9 -21
3 LITERATURE REVIEW 23 -28
4 NEED OF THE STUDY 30
5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 31
6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 33
7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 33
8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35
9 ANALYSIS OF DATA 38 -51
10 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 53
11 CONCLUSION 54
12 RECOMMENDATION 55
13 QUESTIONNAIRE 56-58
14 REFERENCES 59-60
PROJECT REPORT ON
“A STUDY ON LABOUR WELFARE MEASURES”
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEGREE
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF SUBMITTED BY:
MR. YOGENDER KUMAR MOHIT KUMAR LOHIA
UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF LAW & MANAGEMENT STUDIES, SECTOR – 40 GURUGRAM, HARYANA (INDIA)
Professional study is incomplete without having practical exposures in life. Theory provides the fundamental stone for the guidance of practice, but practice examines the element of truth lying in the theory. Therefore a stand co-ordination between theory and practice is very essential to give a synergistic strength and let help the esteemed MBA program move towards perfection. The comprehensive knowledge of the theoretical aspects and the practical exposures has given me a lot of strength to complete my project.
I avail this stance in a very satisfactory manner and think it will be very beneficial for me in building my future. This project is in a part and I have given my best to arrange and report the findings in a good, lucid and systematic way.
MOHIT KUMAR LOHIA
M.B.A IV SEM
I hereby declare that the Project work entitled Assessment of Student’s study on labour welfare measurs in Educational Institution submitted by me during the MBA Program to University Institute of Law and Management Studies is a bonafied record of the original work carried out by me and has not been submitted earlier either to UILMS or to any other Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement for any course of study. I also declare that no chapter of this manuscript in whole or in part is lifted and incorporated in this report from any earlier / other work done by me or others.
Place:- GURUGRAM Mohit kumar lohia
Any work visible is not the effort of the presenter only, but there are many others behind the camera and my report also is not an exception to this. So, this is the way of recognizing the efforts of those behind the scene.
I am extremely thankful to ………………….for his kind guidance and support. It has been a wonderful learning experience for which I feel indebted to him and keenly look forward to such a value adding opportunity again. He provided immense support, encouragement and confidence during the course of the project.
I would like to express my heartiest gratitude and thanks to my parents, for their delightful inspiration, invaluable guidance, cooperation, ideas, and suggestions and of course moral support throughout my project session.
The most important part I would like to pay my gratuitous thanks to my Brother and my loving Sister and to all people who helped me.
Labour welfare is an important fact of Industrial relations. These give satisfaction to the Worker and ensure that proper remuneration is achieved. With the growth of Industrialization, Mechanization and Computerization, labour welfare measures has got fillip. The workers in the Industries cannot cope up with pace of modern life with minimum sustenance amenities. The Workers are in need of added stimulus to keep body and mind together. Labour welfare, though it has been provided to contribute to efficiency in production, is expensive. Each employer Provides welfare measures of varying degrees of importance for Labour force. The social and Economic aspects of life of the workers have direct influence on the social and economic Development of nation. There is an imperative need to take extra care of the workers to provide both statutory and non-statutory facilities to them. The welfare facilities help to motivate and retain employees. Most of the welfare facilities are matters of sanitation and hygienic which is Not provided dissatisfaction among workers is motivated by providing welfare measures. This Ensures employee satisfaction result in increased efficiency. Employee welfare measures may help to minimize social evils like alcoholism, gambling, Drug addiction etc. The workers are likely to fall in victim because of discontentment or Frustration. The welfare facilities induce the workers happy, cheerful and confident with Commitment. The welfare measures and schemes form an integral part of Personnel and HR Management In any organization will go a long way in ensuring the desired goals? In turn this will enhance the Productivity of the organization. The welfare measures are designed and systematized by the organization through statutory bodies like trade unions. The labour departments of the government insist upon minimum amenities to be implemented in any organization. This will ensure that minimum standards that are required for an employee to carry out the duties and perform functions to the extent of satisfaction. An industrial relations system is made up of certain institutions, which are popularly known as “three factors” of the system. In all developed and developing economics, these actors Are…… workers (employees) and their organisation (trade unions), management (employers) and Their organizations (employer’s associations/federations), the Government. These actors jointly determine the output of the system, which largely consists of rules/regulations relating to terms and conditions of employment.
LABOUR WELFARE MEASURE
Employee attitudes are important to human resource management because they affect Organizational behaviour. In particular, an attitude relating to job satisfaction and organizational Commitment is of major interest to the field of organizational behaviour and the practice of Human resource management. Job satisfaction focuses on employee’s attitudes toward their jobs and organizational commitment focuses on their attitudes toward the overall organization.
LABOUR WELFARE AND SOCIAL SECURITY
Social security is one of the pillars on which the structure of a welfare state rests, and it constitutes the hard core of social policy in most countries. It is through social security measures that the state attempts to maintain every citizen at a certain prescribed level below which no one is allowed to fall. It is the security that society furnishes through appropriate organization, against certain risks to which its members are exposed (ILO, 1942). Social security system Comprises health and unemployment insurance, family allowances, provident fund, pensions and Gratuity schemes and widows and survivors allowances. The essential characteristics of social Insurance schemes include their compulsory and contributory nature; the members must first subscribe to a fund from which benefits could be drawn later. On the other hand, social Assistance is a method according to which benefits are given to the needy persons, fulfilling the prescribed conditions, by the government out of its own resources. Labour welfare activities in India with particular emphasis on the unorganized sector. Although provisions for workmen’s compensation in case of industrial accidents and maternity Benefits for women workforce had existed for long, a major breakthrough in the field of social Security came only after independence. The Constitution of India (Article 41) laid down that the State shall make effective provision for securing the right to public assistance in case of Unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of underserved want. The Government took several steps in compliance of the constitutional requirements. The Workmen’s Compensation Act (1926) was suitably revised and social insurance programmes were developed for industrial workers. Provident funds and gratuity schemes were introduced in most industries, and maternity legislation was overhauled. Subsequently, State governments instituted their own Social assistance programmes. The provisions for old age comprise of pension, provident fund, and gratuity schemes. All the three provisions are different forms of retirement benefits. Gratuity is a lump sum payment made to a worker or to his/her heirs by the company on termination of His/her service due to retirement, invalidity, retrenchment or death (Vajpayee and Sankar, 1950). The concept of labour welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with Time, region, industry, social values and customs, degree of industrialization, the General socio-economic development of the people and the political ideologies prevailing at a particular time. It is also moulded according to the age-groups, Socio-cultural background, marital and economic status and educational level of the workers in various industries. In its broad connotation, the term welfare refers to a state of living of an Individual or group in a desirable relationship with total environment – ecological, economic, and social. Conceptually as well as operationally, labour welfare is a part of social welfare which, in turn, is closely linked to the concept and the role of the State. The concept of social welfare, in its narrow contours, has been equated with economic welfare. As these goals are not always be realised by individuals through their efforts alone, the government came into the picture and gradually began to take over the responsibility for the free and full development of human Personality of its population.
Labour welfare is an extension of the term Welfare and its application to labour. During the industrialization process, the stress on labour productivity increased; and brought about changes in the thinking on labour welfare.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
An organisation is influenced by various human resources factors. The labour welfare Measure is one of the factors penetrating in the life of employees those who are working in the Small scale sector. This study explores the employees’ labour welfare measures of IT companies In Chennai. It also studies the employee view about the labour welfare measures on the Productivity of IT units. Another aspect identified in the study is the factors that contribute to improve the standard of labour welfare measures of employees.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
An organisation is influenced by various human resources factors. The labour welfare Measure is one of the factors penetrating in the life of employees those who are working in the Small scale sector. This study explores the employees’ labour welfare measures of IT companies In Chennai. It also studies the employee view about the labour welfare measures on the Productivity of IT units. Another aspect identified in the study is the factors that contribute to improve the standard of labour welfare measures of employees. It covers every dimension of work including economic reward, security, working conditions and interpersonal relationship. Thus, the goal of this study was to gain knowledge about employee’s labour welfare measures and social security in IT industries-A study with reference to Chennai. An attempt is made to labour welfare measure and social security in IT industries at Chennai. What do the various factors constitute to the labour welfare measures and social security? What is the relationship between the labour welfare measures and social security and personal and social background of the respondents?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study has been carried out with the following objectives.
1. To find out the prevailing labour welfare measures and social security in the selected Organization.
2. To analyse the welfare measures of employees that may require to improve the
3. To evaluate the existing service, on the job and orientation measures of employees.
4. To analyse employees motivation towards the enriching asset of the organization.
5. To cull out the problems encountered by the employees in select IT Industries.
6. To suggest suitable measures to improve the labour welfare measures and social security.
1. There is no significant difference between genders with respect to the
2. There is no significant difference between genders with respect to the
3. There is no significant difference between genders with respect to the
Skill and knowledge.
4. There is no significant difference between age groups with respect to the
5. There is no significant difference between age groups with respect to the
6. There is no significant difference between age groups with respect to the
7. There is no significant difference between age groups with respect to the
Feedback and counselling.
8. The relationship between the types of organization and mental stress of
Employees are due to lack of job security.
9. The relationship between marital status and work satisfaction of the employees.
10. The relationship between designation and mental stress of employee.
11. The relationship between designation of the employee and pay satisfaction.
12. The relationship between types of organization and the satisfaction level of the pay.
13. The relationship between the type of organization and the provision for recreational Facilities.
The present study adopted is the survey method of research. It covers the workers of IT Companies in Chennai. As census method is not feasible, the researcher has proposed to follow Sampling. The workers are selected by following random sampling method. In tune with the Objective, the above hypotheses have been tested in the study.
SIZE OF THE SAMPLE
There are a number of Information Technology companies in the Tidal Park of Chennai and its environs. Nearly 60 selected companies sample units were selected on random sampling for the purpose of this study. This study considers the company who have started to function during 2000-05 and continuing. The sample represents selected types of industry groups. 600 employees have been selected for the intensive study using stratified random sampling. The study selects five companies of IT companies in Chennai. Each company consisting of 120 respondents are taken for study purpose.
TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS
The general plan of analysis ranges from simple descriptive statistics to Chi-square test. The extent and variation of time management skills by the employees of information technology industry were measured through a scale and analyses on the basis of the scores of components. In order to find out the significance of the difference between the average, analysis of variance, Chi-square and factor anal
During the pre-independence period, industrial relations policy of the British Government was one of laissez faire and also of selective intervention. There were hardly any labor welfare schemes. After independence, labor legislations have formed the basis for industrial relations and social security. These legislations have also provided machinery for bipartite and tripartite consultations for settlement of disputes. Soon after independence, the government at a tripartite conference in December 1947 adopted the industrial truce resolution. Several legislations, including the following, were enacted to maintain industrial peace and harmony: Factories Act, 1948, Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 and Minimum Wages Act, 1948. The payment of bonus act was passed in 1965.
In the early 1990s, the process of economic reforms was set in motion when the government introduced a series of measures to reduce control on industries, particularly large industries. The workers have opposed economic liberalization policy for fear of unemployment while entrepreneurs have welcomed it in the hope of new opportunities to improve Indian industries. The new economic policy has directly affected industrial relations in the country, because the government has to play a dual role, one of protecting the interest of the workers, and second to allow a free interplay of the market forces. Economic reforms, by removing barriers to entry, have created competitive markets. Fiscal stabilization has resulted in drastic reduction in budgetary support to the public sector commercial enterprises while exposing these enterprises to increased competition from private sector
Labour and labour welfare:
Labour sector addresses multi-dimensional socio-economic aspects affecting labour welfare, productivity, living standards of labour force and social security. To raise living standards of the work force and achieve higher productivity, skill up gradation through suitable training is of utmost importance. Manpower development to provide adequate labour force of appropriate skills and quality to different sectors is essential for rapid socioeconomic development. Employment generation in all the productive sectors is one of the basic objectives. In this context, efforts are being made for providing the environment for self-employment both in urban and rural areas. During the Ninth Plan period, elimination of undesirable practices such as child labour, bonded labour, and aspects such as ensuring workers’ safety and social security, looking after labour welfare and providing of the necessary support measures for sorting out problems relating to employment of both men and women workers in different sectors has received priority attention.
Government Efforts in This Matter:
Various plan schemes of the Ministry of Labour aim at achievement of welfare and social security of the working class and maintenance of industrial peace. As against the approved outlay of Rs. 130 crore for the year 1999-2000, the anticipated expenditure would be Rs.104 crore. The approved outlay for the year 2000-2001 is Rs.123 crore. Plan initiatives in the Labour and Labour Welfare Sector are as under:
Training for skill development.
Services to job seekers.
Welfare of labour.
Administration of labour regulations.
Under the Constitution of India, Vocational Training is a concurrent subject. The development of training schemes at National level, evolution of policy, laying of training standards, procedures, conducting of examinations, certification, etc. are the
The main objectives of the scheme are as under:
To ensure steady flow of skilled workers.
To raise the quality and quantity of industries
Production by systematic training of potential workers.
To reduce unemployment among educated youth by equipping them with suitable skills for industrial employment.
Another significant steps taken by the Central Government has been to constitute welfare funds for the benefits of the employees. These funds have been established in coal, mica, iron-ore, limestone, and dolomite mines. The welfare activities covered by these funds include housing, medical, educational, and recreational facilities for employees and their dependents
Welfare Provisions under the Factories Act, 1948:
This Act, as amended by the latest amendment in the year, 1987 makes elaborate provisions in relation to health, safety, and welfare of workers, provisions regarding working hours including weekly hours, daily hours, weekly holidays, regarding employment of young persons, annual leaves with wages and provision regarding employment of women and young persons. Under the Chapter on Welfare, provisions have been made in connection with washing facilities in the factories, facilities for storing and drying clothing, facilities for sitting for all workers obliged to work in a standing position in order that they may take advantage of any opportunities for rest which may occur in thecourse of their work.
The Act also provides under the same chapter for first aid appliances to be maintained in every factory and for an ambulance room of the prescribed size in case of those factories wherein more than 500 workmen are ordinarily employed.
Governments have been empowered to make rules requiring that in any specified factory wherein more than two hundred fifty workers are ordinarily employed, a canteen or canteens shall be provided and maintained for the use of workers. The Act further provides for shelters, rest rooms and lunchrooms in every factory employing 150 workmen or more. In case of factory employing more than 30 women workers a crèche is to be maintained for the use of their children below 6 years of age. Finally the Act makes provision for the employment of Welfare Officer in factories ordinarily employing more than 500 workmen. Thus, it is clear that the Act makes very elaborate and unambiguous provisions regarding the minimum welfare standards to be followed. But laying sown the standards alone is not enough. It is also to be ensured that these provisions are actually implemented. The non-implementation of the various provisions may negate the very intention of the legislature.
Welfare of Labour:
The improvement of labour welfare and increasing productivity with reasonable level of social security is one of the prime objectives concerning social and economic policy of the Government. The resources have been directed through the Plan programmes towards skill formation and development, monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and then families. The situation of surplus labour and workers in the un-organized segment of the economy give rise to unhealthy social practices such as bonded labour, child labour and adverse working
Conditions. In the year 1999, Workmen Compensation Act has been revised to benefit the workers and their families in the case of death/disability. The labour laws enforcement machinery in the States and at the Centre are working to amend the laws which require changes, revise rules, regulations orders and notifications.
There are also laws enacted and schemes established by the Central/State Governments providing for social security and welfare of specific categories of working people. The principal social security laws enacted centrally are the following:
The Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923.
The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948.
The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1953. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.
The E.P.F. ; M.P. Act is administered exclusively by the Government of India through the EPFO. The cash benefits under the ESI are administered by the Central Government through the Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) whereas medical care under the ESI Act is being administered by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. The Payment of Gratuity Act is administered by the Central Government in establishments under its control, establishments having branches in more than one State, major ports, mines, oil fields and the railways and by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations in all other cases. In mines and circus industry, the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act are being administered
by the Central Government through the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) and by the State Governments in factories, plantation and other establishments. The provisions of the Workmen’s compensation Act are being administered exclusively by State Governments.
Employees Pension Scheme, 1995 was amended in February, 1999 to provide for pension to dependent father/mother in respect of a deceased member, who has no eligible family members and if no nomination was executed by him during his life time. Permanent and totally disabled children of the PF members were made entitled w.e.f. February, 1999 to payment of monthly children/orphan pension irrespective of age and number of children in the family. Disbursement of pension and provident fund benefits on the date of retirement in Public Sector Undertaking and model private sector establishment was introduced. One hundred and thirty six beneficiaries were paid benefits on the date of retirement during the two months December 1998 and January, 1999. Under the Workmen Compensation Act, persons employed as cooks in hotels/restaurants made eligible for benefits of compensation w.e.f. July, 1998.
For workers of poor families not covered under any insurance scheme or any law statute, the Central Government has introduced a scheme of Personal Accident Insurance Social Security Scheme. The Scheme is applicable to all persons in the age group of 18-55 who are earning members of poor families and meet with fatal accidents. The quantum of benefits is Rs.3,000.
The Scheme is implemented through the General Insurance Corporation.
A new initiative has been taken by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation by providing insurance cover to unorganized labour working in construction industry, agriculture fields and forests where the insurance cover will be provided through the Co-operatives on 50:50 basis through the national insurance cover and Labour Co-operatives. A premium of Rs.5.25 per annum will be paid by the Co-operatives. The insurance cover has the provision that in the case of death of a labourer, his family will be paid Rs.25,000. Now the meaning of labour welfare may be made clearer by listing the activities and facilities which are referred to as welfare measures: A comprehensive list of labour welfare activities is given by M.V. Moorthy in his monumental work on labour welfare. He divides welfare measures into two broad groups, namely:
Welfare measures inside the work place and
Welfare measures outside the work place
Welfare measures inside the work place: 1. Conditions of the work environment:
Neighborhood safety and cleanliness;
Housekeeping; up keeping of premises;
? Workshop (Room) sanitation and Cleanliness;
Temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting, elimination of dust, smoke, fumes, gases etc.
Control of effluents.
Convenience and comfort during work that is operative’s
Posture, seating arrangements.Distribution of working hours and provision for rest hours, meal times and breaks.
Workmen’s safety measures, that is maintenance of machines and tools, fencing of machines, helmets, aprons, goggles, and first – aid equipments.
Supply of necessary beverages, pills and tablets like salt tablets, milk, soda etc.
Notice boards; posters, pictures, slogans, information or communication.
Urinals and Lavatories, wash basins, bathrooms, provision for spittoons; waste disposal.
Provision of drinking water, water coolers
Canteen services; full meal, mobile canteen
Mobile phones and e – mail facilities.
? Management of workers’ clock rooms, rest rooms, reading rooms, and sectional library.
Worker’s Health services:
Factory health centre, Dispensary, ambulance, emergency aid, medical examinations for the workers,
Health education, family planning, Awareness programme on HIV –AIDS.
Women and Child Welfare:
Antenatal and postnatal care; maternity aid, crèche and child care;
Women’s general education; family planning services,
Separate services for women workers, that is lunch rooms, urinals, rest rooms,
Women’s recreation (indoor)
Indoor games; strenuous games to be avoided during intervals of work.
Employment Follow up:
Progress of the operative in his/her work; his/her adjustment problems with regard to machines and workload, supervisors and colleagues; industrial counseling.
Co-operatives, loans, financial grants, thrifts and saving schemes; budget knowledge, unemployment insurance, health insurance, employment bureau, profit – sharing and bonus schemes; transport services, provident fund, gratuity and pension; reward and incentives; workmen’s compensation for injury; family assistance in times of need .
Labour management Participation:
Formation of various committees like works com. Safety com. Canteen com. Etc.
Consultation in welfare area, in production area, in the area
of administration, in the area of public relations.
Workmen’s arbitration council / quality council
Literary classes, skill based trainings, adult education, social education, daily news review, factory news bulletin, quality education etc.
Welfare measures outside the work place:
Housing: bachelors’ quarters, family residences according to types and rooms.
Water, sanitation and waste disposals.
Roads, parks, recreation and playground.
Schools: nursery, primary, secondary and high schools.
Markets, cooperatives, consumer and credit societies.
Bank and ATM
Communication: Post, Telegraph, Internet, Telephone, etc.
Health and medical services: dispensary, emergency ward, out-patient and in-patient care, family visiting, family planning
Recreations: games, clubs, craft centers, cultural programmers, study circle, open air theatre, swimming pool, athletics, gymnasia etc.
Watch and ward; security
Community leadership development: council of elders, women’s association / clubs, youth clubs, etc.
SMEs in Maharashtra:
Since its inception in May 1960 Maharashtra has been in the forefront of industrialization. The state has always followed progressive industrial policies and industry – friendly measures. Through a network of District Industries Centre (DICs), it offers maximum guidance and assistance to SMEs. Many SMEs promoted by local entrepreneurs as also by NRIs and foreigners have come up in Maharashtra covering a broad spectrum of industrial activity. The quality of products of SMEs from Maharashtra is high. Some of them have acquired technology from abroad. Adequate budget is provided for R & D operations. Many units are promoted by techno-entrepreneurs. In view of the objective of the study, it was considered necessary to undertake a survey of SMEs from major parts of Maharashtra covering following sectors: Engineering; Electricals; Electronics, Garments, Food Processing; Leather, Chemicals and Plastic. The field survey consisted of visits to industries in the cities that Aurangabad, Jalna, Nanded, Akola, Amravati, Solapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Nashik and Jalgaon.
Importance of Study:
Labour welfare activities in an industrialized society has far reaching impact not only on the work force but also all the facets of human resources. Labour welfare includes all such activities, which not only secures existential necessities but also ensures improvement in spiritual and emotional quotient. It comprises of short term and long terms goal toward building a humane society. Labour welfare Activities is combinations of various steps, the cumulative effect of which is to grease the wheels of industry and
Society. Sound industrial relations can only be based on human relations and good human relations dictate that labour being, human being should be treated humanely which includes respect for labour dignity, fair dealing and concern for the human beings physical and social needs. In any industry good relations between the management and workers depend upon the degree of mutual confidence, which can be established. This, in turn, depends upon the recognition by the labour of the goodwill and integrity of the organization in the day to day handling of questions which are of mutual concern.
The basic needs of a labour are freedom from fear, security of employment and freedom from want. Adequate food, better health, clothing and housing are human requirements. The human heart harbors secret pride and invariably responds to courtesy and kindness just as it revolts to tyranny and fear. An environment where he is contended with his job assured of a bright future and provided with his basic needs in life means an atmosphere of good working condition and satisfaction to labour. Labour welfare activities are based on the plea that higher productivity requires more than modern machinery and hard work. It requires co-operative endeavor of the parties, labour and management. This is possible only when labour is given due importance and human element is taken into account at every stage. The worker has a fund of knowledge and experience at his job. If rightly directed and fully used, it would make a great contribution to the prosperity of the organization. This can only be achieved through satisfaction of the labour as the worker feels that he is an active participant in the production process, and he does at most for increasing the
Production and its productivity. The study provides a detailed insight in to the various aspects of labour welfare and social security in Small & Medium Industries in Maharashtra. The study shall help the policy makers to recognize the importance of Small Scale Businesses and industries in the provision of employment to the labor force for economic development. This shall further guide them to make trade policies to enhance the performance.
Objective of the Study:
The focus of the study is mainly of labour welfare practices in selected Small-Medium industries in selected districts of Maharashtra State. The following objectives are prescribed for the present study:
To know the importance of labour welfare in industries.
To study the labour welfare practices adopted by industrial houses.
Totake the review of labour welfare Acts of Government.
To know the role of labour unions in labour welfare practices.
To focus on labour welfare measures implemented by selected small-medium industries in Maharashtra State.
To know the problems in implementing labour welfare measures in small-medium industries in Maharashtra State.
To suggest the suitable measures for effective labour welfare practices in small-medium industries.
Exploratory research design is used for the purpose of the current study. Labour welfare practices have not been researched in Maharashtra State although this field has gained a lot of attention in the international context. Hence the basic understanding of this field is not very clear. To have a better understanding of the problems of labour welfare practices; current research study is based on primary and secondary sources of data and hence exploratory research design is the most suitable way of researching the current field. The focus of this study is to discover why the state is lagging behind in the implemented good labour welfare practices.
The secondary data is collected from the various research books, Reports of International; National Labour Organization, Government Report, Published or unpublished sources, Journals, Magazines, News Papers, etc. The research could not have been facilitated with the help of quantitative number churning method, hence qualitative research as a methodology was used for the current research. Qualitative research helped in understanding the context of all the types of labour welfare practices. Qualitative methodology also helped in understanding the complex relationship between the owner, union and workers in the concerned region.
Sampling, Tools and Techniques:
The sampling process adopted for the study was purposive sampling. The focus of this research is on labour / workers in small-medium industries in Maharashtra State. The labours were also interacted with, to understand the types of labour welfare
practices adopted for them. For the purpose of the study the primary datais collected from500 labours from 50 industries from all the ten selected districts of Maharashtra State viz. Aurangabad, Jalna, Nanded, Akola, Amravati, Solapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Nashik & Jalgaon. For the purpose of collection of data astructured questionnaire is used for labours and interview technique is adopted. The data collected from the primary sources is analyzed with the help of computer software and statistical tools. The selection procedure of sample units and sample respondents is as under.
Table No. 2.01: List of Sample Selection.
District Total % to No. of No. of
Small, Total Unit Sample
Micro and selected Respondents
Medium Sr. Industries 1 Aurangabad 1,049 3.83 2 20
2 Jalna247 0.9 2 20
3 Nanded631 2.31 2 20
4 Akola 280 1.02 1 10
5 Amrawati596 2.18 1 10
6 Solapur1,857 6.79 4 40
7 Pune11,616 42.5 20 200
8 Kolhapur 6,395 23.4 10 100
9 Nashik3,661 13.4 6 60
10 Jalgaon1,023 3.75 2 20
Total: 27,355 100 50 500
Instrument used for data collection:
A combination of research methods and techniques were used to collect data. These included among others, observation, personal interviews and focused group discussions. The researcher used a self administered qualitative questionnaire containing two typesof questions: closed and open ended questions. The Narrative analysis analytical approach was used to analyze the data that has been collected for it to convey meaning to people. Closed-ended questions would offer the respondents with a list of responses from which they would be required to choose from while the open ended-questions would enable the respondents to give their general reactions to the questions thus providing the researcher with a rich array of data. Understanding the deeper issues which quantitative research bury in figures is physical observations were also conducted on construction sites in order to relate questionnaire responses to what is actually obtained on construction sites. The study is limited to Small and Medium industries only. A total of 500 respondents responded in the research, all of them mostly of the lower class who worked in two different small and medium enterprises.
Data collected is analyzed in consideration of research objectives. This is done using a narrative analysis with the help of tables and charts. For the purpose of data analysis appropriate simple statistical and mathematical tools is used.
Hypothesis for the Study:
The following hypotheses are set for the present study:
The work place conditions (Environment) is not satisfactory in small-medium industries.
Statutory Welfare Facilities provided by small-medium industries in Maharashtra State is not satisfactory.
Non-Statutory Welfare Facilities provided by small-medium industries in Maharashtra State is not satisfactory.
Labour welfare facility improves – Work efficiency, Standard of leaving, Loyalty towards employer, High motivation level and High Satisfaction level among the labours.
Limitations of the Study:
This study has acknowledged some limitations. The participants in this study are labours / workers from the Small and Medium industries from the selected districts. So, the findings may not be generalizing to other populations. The reason being no data and information has maintained by the respective HRM departments to measure the welfare practices. The investigator has concluded with the available data. Similarly the employer-employee relations and the role of employees could not be assessed for want of recorded data and information. Inconsistency in the responses is another limitation. The study is only limited to a selected sample of 500 respondents but there is scope to increase this number. For cross check purposes certain items are repeated in the questionnaire and the element of inconsistency removed. These limitations however did not affect in any way the quality of the study and in fulfilling the objectives set out by the study.
Presentation of the Study
The study is presented in seven chapters. The significances of Small and medium industries and welfare practices and policies have been discussed in the first chapter. The second chapter covers the review of literature and the research design, which includes the need for the study, objectives, methodology, sampling and the presentation of the study. The chapter scheme of present research is as follows.
Objectives, Research Methodology and Review of Literature.
Importance of Labour Union, Labour welfare and welfare practices in Small-Medium Industries.
Labour welfare Acts of Government.
Study Area Profile.
Labour welfare measures and its impact in selected small-medium industries.
Conclusions and Suggestions.
Review of Literature:
Researchers have done tremendous work on labour welfare and job satisfaction. Some studies have determined the influence of labour welfare facilities on job satisfaction. Other studies have researched the extent of job satisfaction experienced by employees and the job facets that are responsible in promoting job satisfaction. Furthermore investigations have shown that personal variables such as age, gender and experience influence job satisfaction. An attempt is made here to review the literature covering a wider spectrum of labour welfare practices with special
Reference to small and medium industries. A literature review is a description of the literature relevant to a particular field or topic. It gives an overview of what has been said, who the key writers are, what are the prevailing theories and hypothesis, what questions are being asked, and what methods and methodologies are appropriate and useful. As such, it is not in itself primary research, but rather it reports on other findings. There is necessity to re-invent the Wheel goes a popular proverb. To reinforce this, here is a detailed review of the major studies conducted on the various functional aspects of labour welfare and securities in India. The priority was to focus on Indian literature by Indian researchers which could give a better perspective at the ground level related to labour welfare practices in the Indian industrial sector. The review of literature in this chapter is highlighting all such studies and provides an insight into the variables influencing labour welfare practices adopted by industries.
Report of National Commission on Labour (2002), Government of India, made recommendations in the area of labour welfare measures which include social security, extending the application of the Provident Fund, gratuity and unemployment insurance etc.
N. K. Jetli (2004)9– Labour reforms in India, in the context of globalization, are much desired, but also feared and misinterpreted. The issue has been a touchy one ever since the liberalization era began in the early 1990s. Labour reforms are a very sensitive subject in the Indian context, given the ground realities of poverty, illiteracy, diseases,
Deprivation, exploitation, and per capita income. Labour market reforms involve institutional innovation. Hasty attempts to reform the legal framework without creating Institutions appropriate for a new regulatory regime will create anarchic conditions in the labour market. A programme of labour policy reform has to be formulated with these considerations in view. This hook examines the whole gamut of labour issues in the context of economic liberalization underway in India.
C. P. John (2004)10 -The majority of Welfare Funds in theState expends a large chunk of their incomes as establishment charges. It means that a sizeable proportion of the savings of the informal sector workers is used to finance the salaries and perquisites of formal sector workers in government service. Higher costs of administration raise basic questions about the basic purpose of running Welfare Funds. A solution to this problem rests as indicated earlier on establishment of a unified and common administrative body to manage all the Welfare Funds; the danger imminent in such a solution has in the development of a monolithic bureaucratic structure. With regard to Government contributions and workers’ contributions to the Welfare Funds, there exist no well-stated principles; therefore, out of the 19 Welfare Funds formed in the State only 15 get Government contribution. Employers’ contributions are also irregular. The coverage ratio of Welfare Funds in Kerala is quite dismal too due to the poor attractiveness of expected
Benefits. Further, funds mobilized by the majority of Welfare Funds are insufficient to meet their disbursements.
K. Narindar Jetli (2006)11 – During the pre-Independence period, industrial relations policy of the British Government was one of laissez faire and also of selective intervention. There were hardly any labour welfare schemes. After independence, labour legislations have formed the basis for industrial relations and social security. These legislations have also provided machinery for bipartite and tripartite consultations for settlement of disputes. This book examines the whole gamut of labour related issues during the post Independence period. The approach to the subject is mainly descriptive, interspersed by comments at places.
Meenakshi Rajeev (2006)12 – In order to surpass thestringent labour regulations, the industry sector in India is largely resorting to contract labourers, who are governed by the “Contract Labour Regulation and Abolition Act of 1970”. A primary survey carried out in Karnataka reveals that many of the stipulations made in the Act to safeguard contract labourers are not followed in practice. It has also been felt by the workers that collusive agreement between the labour inspector, the protector of law, and the principal employer (or the contractor) has aided the violation of law. This paper discusses some of the survey findings and formulates a game theoretic model to show why it is economically optimal to collude. It also examines theoretically whether any provision
Of reward for the labour inspector would help to protect the law.
Shobha Mishra and Manju Bhagat (2007)13in their article discuss labour welfare activities in an industrialized society has far reaching impact not only on the work force but also all the facets of human resources. Labour welfare includes all such activities, which not only secures existential necessities but also ensures improvement in spiritual and emotional quotient. It comprises of short term and long terms goal toward building a humane society. As labour welfare is a dynamic concept, changes in its principles activities and the rationale supporting them have not been static. They closely follow the stages of advancement of the industrialized society – from police Theory to Functional Theory. Accordingly principles for successful implementation of labour welfare activities ranges from adequacy of wages to impact on efficiency as well as transformation of personality in nut shell, it is extension of democratic values in an industrialized society.
Piyali Ghosh, Shefali Nandan and Ashish Gupta
(2009)14 – Trade unions are a major component of the system of modern industrial relations in any nation, each having, in their constitution, their own set of objectives or goals to achieve. Change in the political, social and educational environment has seen them rechristened as a forum that protects and furthers workers’ interests and improves the quality of life of workers, enlarging their
traditional roles of establishing terms and conditions of employment. This paper focuses on plant level trade unions, particularly those of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) Unchahar plant, one of the largest and best Public Sector Undertakings of India. This exploratory study of the different trade unions operational at the Unchahar plant will also highlight their ideologies, objectives and structures. We aim to capture the changing paradigms in the roles of plant-level unions: from maintaining good industrial relations, once considered their primary role, they now work actively to improve the quality of life of workers, a role earlier considered to be secondary.
Indian Labour Year Book 2009- 201015 – In this 58thissue of Indian Labour Year Book covering developments in the labour-related areas 12 subjects are being covered, viz., Employment and Training, Wages and Earnings, Family Income and Expenditure Surveys and Consumer Price Index Numbers, Industrial Relations, Labour Welfare, Industrial Housing, Health and Safety, Labour Administration, Labour Legislation, Agricultural /Rural Labour, India and the International Labour Organisation. Besides, it also contains list of important labour Acts (Central and State), Conventions ; Recommendations adopted by the International Labour Conference as well as those ratified by India, list of various journals of labour interest published in India, a bibliography of the publication of various organizations, departments, ministries and autonomous bodies in the field of labour and a brief account of the content
and titles of various publications of Labour Bureau. This Issue also dwells on the various welfare programmes and policies of the government launched and implemented for the welfare of labour class in terms of health, education, employment, housing, social security and other incidental benefits.
Deb Tapomoy (2010)16 – Sixty years have passed since India gained its independence, but it is still a large agrarian economy with 3/5’h of workforce employed in agriculture and produces about l/4th of gross domestic product (GDP). Since the liberalization of Indian economy, the reform in respect of labour has been the slowest. Labour legislation on working conditions needs to be equitable, more responsive and more inclusive and which facilitates in making Indian firms more competitive. The challenge is of combining greater flexibility with the need to maximize security for all particularly labour.
Sabarirajan, T.Meharajan, B.Arun (2010)17 – The Cotton Textile plays a vital role in human life. Textile industries are one of the important industries of India for earning Foreign Exchange and giving employment to lakhs of workers .Because of being a highly labor intensive industry it needs to concentrate more in the area of employee welfare. In this study we selected Salem District in Tamil Nadu, India for identifying various methods and also to identify the effectiveness of the methods. The study shows that 15% of the employees are highly satisfied with their welfare measures.
22 % of the employees are satisfied with their welfare measures.39 % of the employees is average with their welfare measures. 16% of them are in highly dissatisfied level. Welfare measures plays important role in employee satisfaction and it results in improved quality of work life. This study throws light on the impact of welfare measures on QWL among the employees of textile mills in Salam district.
P. Swapna and N. Samuyelu (2011)18 – India being a welfare state wedded to the philosophy of socialistic pattern of society, it is imperative to have a contended workforce, enjoying a reasonable standard of living with adequate facilities and provisions for the well being of them. The absence of any comprehensive study in the area of welfare and social protection of workers in the study area of Andhra Pradesh and the growing employment opportunities thrown by the fast expanding private corporations in this region have encouraged the present study by me. It is evident for the literature that many efforts have been made to study to the various aspects of welfare and social security of labour in different wings of Singareni Collieries Company limited. The present study tries to make a comparison on the provisions and implementation of the overall benefits of the workers in different wings of the same company and by giving the overall welfare activities of the company.
K. Mariappan (2011)19– As in other developing countries, unemployment is a serious problem of the Indian Economy. The poverty of the masses in India is closely related to the
problem of unemployment. Hence, expansion of employment opportunities has been an important objective of development planning in India. There has been a significant growth in employment during successive Five Year Plans. However, a relatively higher growth of population and labour force has led to an increase in the volume of unemployment from one plan period to another. This book provides a comprehensive account of employment and labour related policies and issues in India. It covers the following areas-Demographic trends, Unemployment estimates, Employment policies and programmes, Labour laws, Social security, Unorganized sector workers, agricultural workers and forced /bonded labourers, women workers, child labour, industrial sickness, industrial relations and Indian labour in relation to ILO, WTO and globalization.
Josephine Moeti-Lysson and Rudolph L. Boy
(2011)20 -The research views of different employees in smalland medium enterprises about what can be done to improve the health and safety in work places. From the findings, it shows that when good health and safety practices are not put in place, accidents ,major and minor injuries can happen, and it is what most of the employees in other companies have so far experienced. This implies that if health and safety is not managed effectively, both the two parties being employees and the organization would suffer because for the organization to function effectively, it needs employees and for the people to survive, they need to work.
Bhavani and Thamil Selvan Labour Welfare
Measures (2011)21– India has liberalized its economic policies in 1991, it has positively responded and now India is considered as one of the dynamic emerging nations. Recently the World Bank forecasts that by 2020, India could become the fourth largest economy in the world. The liberalized economic policies provide tremendous opportunity for the foreign companies to start business in India. This leads to increased level of competition and put pressure on domestic companies human resource functions. To survive and prosper, in this toughest competitive environment, they have to prepare and develop their employees to compete with overseas organisations in skills, efficiency and effectiveness. The adequate welfare measures will enhance the healthy industrial relations in the organisations.
Third Annual Report to the People on Employment
(2012)22 – The report notes that in order to tackle youth unemployment, both demand and supply side issues need to be addressed in a coherent manner. Educational attainment and skill training can create an effective labour supply, but it will become meaningful only in an overall growth promoting environment. With the Government bunching a number of innovative schemes to empower the young work force, the primary challenge lies in the effective implementation of the schemes at the grass root level with active part participation from the stakeholders concerned.
M.Rama Satyanarayana and R.Jayaprakash Reddy
(2012)23 – The study is undertaken by the authors to know the satisfaction levels of employees about labour welfare measures in KCP limited. The results of the research reveal that majority of the employees are satisfied with all the welfare measures provided by the organization. The overall satisfaction levels of employees about welfare measures in the organization cover under study are satisfactory. However, a few are not satisfied with welfare measures provided by the organization. It is suggested that the existing welfare measures may be improved further. Such welfare measures enrich the employees’ standard of living and their satisfaction levels.
P. Venugopal , T. Bhaskar, P. Usha (2011)24 – Human Resources play a very important role in the development of the business. They constitute the organization at all levels and are regarded as a dynamic factor of production. In order to get best results from the employees, management must be aware of what employees expect from their employees. It is for the management to see that the workers get economic, social and individual satisfaction, employee welfare activities are undertaken. The Study on “employee welfare measures” is conducted with the main objective of evaluating the effectiveness of welfare measures in industrial sector and to suggest measures to make existing welfare measures much more effective and comprehensive so that the benefits of the employees will be increased. The concept of ’employee welfare’ is flexible and elastic and differs widely with time,
region, industry, social values and customs, degree of industrialization, the general economic development of the people and political ideologies prevailing at a particular time, it is also melded according to the age – group, sex, socio – cultural background, marital and economic status and educational level of the employee in various industries. In the ‘broader sense’, employee welfare may include not only the minimum standard of hygiene and safety laid down in general employee legislation, but also such aspects of working life as social insurance schemes, measures for the protection of women, limitation of hours of work, paid vacation, etc. In the ‘narrow sense’, welfare in addition to general physical working conditions is mainly concerned with the day – to – day problems of the employees and social relationship sat the place of work.
Soumi Rai (2012)25 – This study addresses gaps in research related to study and understanding of Human Resource Management in the context of Indian Automobile sector. The review is based on the available and published literature in journals of reputation and academic standing. A total of 138 papers were reviewed related to the general context of Human Resource Management practices. Of these, about 65 papers were found relevant and relating to understanding of HRM practices in India specifically in the context of the industrial sector. The timeline for literature review has been taken from 1970 – 2010, as it encompasses the period of industrialization in India, growth of HRM and
Major transition across Indian industrial sector post economic liberalization – 1991.Jebamalairaja1, R. Pichumani (2012)26 – The concept of ‘labour welfare’ is dynamic. It bears a different interpretation from country to country and from time to time. Different factors like value system, social institutions, degree of industrialization and the general level of social and economic development obtaining in a country at a particular time determine the contents of labour welfare. But broadly speaking, labour welfare should meet the necessary requirements of labour. Labour welfare measures enable workers to live a richer and a more satisfactory life and it contribute to the productivity of labour and efficiency of the enterprise. It also enhances the standard of living of workers by indirectly reducing the burden on their purse. It also promotes harmony with similar Service obtaining in the neighbourhood community where the enterprise is situated. It is based on an intelligent prediction of the future needs of industrial workers, and be so designed as to offer a cushion to absorb the shock of industrialization and Urbanization to workers. Labour welfare measures are grossly inadequate in India when compare to international standards.
R. Sanjeevi (2012)27 – The role of trade unions in resolving the problems facing the country. These are political issues and a trade union is a non-political body fighting only for benefit of the employees. In contrast to the majority of the responses, however, indicates a willingness to postpone or
Even to set aside the goal of higher wages and facilities for their members the use of trade unions as interest groups in favor of educating the general public for radical social transformation. They would like to utilize the unions for raising production rather than achieving the narrower ends of employed workers. The trade-union functionaries in the given region consider themselves as agents of social change.
Minakshi Garg and Pardeep Jain (2013)28 – Industrial progress depends on satisfied labour force and in this connection the importance of labour welfare measures was accepted long back. Labour welfare concept is basically based on human values, where each citizen has a right to work in a congenial environment with no hazards to his health on reasonable wages and other terms and conditions of employment. The days are over when labour was considered to be a commodity. When a worker joins industry he has to work in an entire strange atmosphere, creating problems of adjustment. Having a satisfied workforce is very much essential for smooth working of every organization. So this study is conducted to know whether the workers are satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by textile industries in Punjab. This study has also attempted to study relationship between the sex of the respondents and awareness on welfare measures.
Esrafil Ali (2013)29 – An organization is made up of a number of people who do their utmost to achieve the organization goals. Human Resource Management is the
body of science that correlates the existence of able HR and the success of the organization. Human Resource has a significant bearing on the profitability, efficiency and overall organization effectiveness. HRM as a body of language has seen different changes over a period of time. HR profession had started its role as labour officer/welfare officer and is now viewed as a strategic role where the emphasis is on employee engagement. Developed and developing nation like India have depended largely on Small Scale Industries (SSIs). According to a survey, it was found that SSIs has contributed a lot in the growth and development of Indian economy by providing 45% of the total industrial output. There is no denying the fact that large organizations are looked after by professionals from varied fields. Previously, it is believed that SSIs are handled by non professional and are managed as family business. It is accepted that there exists lack of professional approach towards HR and the managers are unaware of the development that are taking place in management field, generally, and HRM in particular. This study looks at extricating these myths with the help of testing hypothesis, but no way concludes the HR practices being implemented in their organization.
Parul P Bhati, and Ashokkumar M. (2013)30 – This study contains the overviews of Engineering Industry. This also contains the different welfare provisions to be given to the employees under the Factory Act 1948. The study contains the research on employee satisfaction towards welfare facilities under the act. This includes the study of 50
employees from each of the company i.e. Jyoti CNC, Rajoo Engineering, Steel Cast, Atul auto ; Amul industries making a total sample size of 250 employees. In the study the authors measured the impact of welfare provisions on employee satisfaction by way of the correlation technique and also measured that whether any difference in terms of employee satisfaction towards welfare provision exists by way of using one way Annova test.
Sharanappa Saidapur And Jayakumar Sindhe(2013)31 – The country has the distinction of having some ofthe most comprehensive labour laws in the world, even while having one of the largest fractions of the working population is unprotected and under privileged. Labour legislations are protecting the interest of the labour and promoting the welfare of labour community in India. Modern states are welfare state; their motto is to achieve the happiness of workers. Labourers are pillars of production system. Without labourer we can’t produce a single article in the economy. Providing basic facilities for workers is an obligatory duty of the state and enjoying the basic facilities of workers are fundamental rights of the labourer provided for in the Indian constitution. Labour legislation has grown up as one of the most important social institutions in India.
K. B. Ravindra (2013)32 – Labour welfare and social security has got a lot of significance with Public Sector, Private Sector and also Multinational Companies. Labour welfare activities in an industrialized society have far
Reaching impact not only on the work force but also on all facets of human resources. Labour welfare includes all such activities which not only secure existential necessities but also ensures improvement in the spiritual, emotional and other aspects of a worker. The aspect of labour welfare requires an honest and serious approach that money and environment given to employees never go waste. A happy employee is a productive employee. A study on labour welfare and social security is an effort to be perfected in the art of managing people and in these days the most important management is people’s management. Welfare schemes should be regarded as a wise investment which should and usually does bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. The study provides a detailed insight in to the various as pacts of labour welfare and social security in Indian Industries.
Neeraj Sharma, Jyoti Kandpal Bhatt, Monika Singh
(2013)33 – During the pre-independence period, industrial relations policy of the British Government was one of laissez faire ; also of selective intervention. These were hardly any labour welfare schemes. After independence, labour legislations have formed the basis for industrial relations ; social security. Labour sector addresses multi-dimensional, socio-economic aspects affecting labour welfare, productivity, living standards of labour force and social security. To raise living standards of the workforce and achieve higher productivity skill up gradation through suitable training is of utmost importance. Labour welfare
Occupies a place of significance in the industrial development and economy. It is an important facet of industrial relations the extra dimension, giving satisfaction to the worker in a way which even a good wage cannot. The important of labour welfare and increasing productivity with reasonable level of social security is one of the prime objectives concerning social ; economic policy of the government.
K. Logasakthi ; K. Rajagopal (2013)34 – Labour health, safety and welfare are the measures of promoting the efficiency of labour. The various welfare measures provided by the employer will have immediate impact on the health, physical and mental efficiency alertness, morale and overall efficiency of the worker and thereby contributing to the higher productivity. Some of the facilities and services which fall within the preview of labour welfare include adequate canteen facilities, accommodation arrangements, and recreational facilities, medical facilities transportation facilities for traveling from ;to the place of work. This study highlights the welfare measures taken in the chemical industry, the employees’ satisfaction level, and to identify the overall quality of work life of the employees.
Deepali S.Kadam and H.M.Thakar (2014)35 – If workers health is good; they can work with full capacity & efficiency. Industrial health depends upon the workers health & workers health depends upon safety measures provided by organization. An employ spends about 8 hours at the place of work during any working day. He must be provided with
Such types of facilities which will maintain his health his wealth & keep him interested in his work. It helps to increase the production & profit of the organization. Then the organization can provide better wages & other welfare facilities to worker. Thus the employee’s health, safety ; welfare are correlated with each other. Hence every organization should take care of employee’s health by providing proper safety measures. This objective of research is to know the effectiveness of health, safety measures provided at selected co-operative sugar factories.
R. Madhesh (2014)36 – The State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu Ltd. industrial complex was established in the year 1971 to develop industrial growth in Tamil Nadu. These industrial parks are important for the country in earning Foreign Exchange and providing employment to lakhs of workers. Being highly labour intensive industries, it needs more concentration in the area of employee welfare to increase productivity. In this study, the industries located in SIPCOT industrial complex, Hosur, Dharmapuri District has been selected. This study identifies various welfare measures and effectiveness of those methods. Welfare measures plays important role in employee satisfaction which results in improved quality of work life. This study throws light on the impact of welfare measures on QWL among the employees of SIPCOT industrial area in Dharmapuri district.
This study addresses gaps in research related to study of labour welfare practices in the context of Small and Medium industries. The study draws on prevailing literature related to both small and medium industries and, opening of avenues towards further empirical research in this yet untapped sector. Very few studies dealing with either employee welfare or social security
Measures have been carried out in Maharashtra State. In fact, in-depth studies on the provision of employee welfare and social security measures in small and medium industries are negligible. However, some useful literature is available in books, journals and published / unpublished theses. Further, a good number of articles published in various academic magazines and journals are also available.
Damle, D.G., (1976) – Provident Fund for Workers – Indian Journal of Social Work; Vol.29; No.107.
Jain R.C. (2001) – Path to Industrial peace – Indian Labour Journal ; Vol. 24; No. 2.
Moorthy, M.V., (2000) – Labour Welfare, Indian Journal of Social Work; Vol.11; No. 3.
Batra S L (1996) – Employment for Women: A Study of Export-Oriented Garment Industry – Har-Anand Publications, New Delhi.
Government of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment (1969) – Report of the Committee on Labour Welfare.
Pramod Varma (2001) – Labour Economics and Industrial Relations – Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
Arun Monappa (1990) – Labour Welfare and Social Security in Industrial Relations – Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
Among the all, human being is the finest one, who needs skills, talents, attitudes, Motivation, career planning and to deliver goods and services in time with the facilities of Labour Welfare Measures and Social Security. Employees are highly perishable, which need Constant welfare measures for their up gradation and performance in this field. In India, service Sector is a leading sector, which generates more employment, needs welfare measures for their Improvement. The welfare facilities help to motivate and retain employees. Most of the welfare Facilities are methods of hygienic among workers are motivated by providing welfare measures. This ensures employee satisfaction result in increased efficiency.
Employee Welfare is “Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities offered to employees & by the employers. Through such generous fringe benefits the employer makes life worth living for employees.”
Questionnaire on Employee Welfare Activities is as follows:
Q1. From how many years you are working with this Organization?a. 0-5 Yearsb. 5-10 Yearsc. 10 to 15 Yearsd. More than 15 YearsQ2. How do you rate the Working Environment of the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averagely Satisfactoryd. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ3. How do you rate the medical benefits provided by the Organization for the employees & their families?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ4. Does the company provide maternity leave to Female Employees?a. Yesb. NoQ5. How do you rate the working Hours of the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ6. How do you rate the sitting arrangement of the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ7. How do you rate the Conveyance Allowance offered by the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ8. Rate the Overtime allowance offered by the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ9. How do you rate leave policy of the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ10. Do you get regular increments ?a. Yesb. NoQ11. Does the Organization offers sufficient number of toilets ?a. Yesb. NoQ12. Rate the canteen services provided by the organization.a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ13. Rate the Rest room and lunch room facility to the employees?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly DissatisfactoryQ14. Does the organization provide creche facility?a. Yesb. NoQ15. Does the company take care of the employees working in night shift?a. Yesb. NoQ16. Does working in the organization give you a feeling of security?a. Yesb. NoQ17. Does the company takes safety measures for employee safety ?a. Yesb. NoQ18. Do you think employee welfare activities of the Organization give a feeling of safety and improve your performance?a. Yesb. NoQ19. Rate the overall satisfaction with employee welfare activities of the Organization?a. Highly Satisfactoryb. Satisfactoryc. Averaged. Dissatisfactorye. Highly