CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Background of The Study

Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008). it seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking. Moreover, the students of G.S kabarondo B require the improvisation in other to increase performing especial in chemistry due to lack of the laboratory. it is known worldwide that laboratory equipment and teaching-learning material are factor influencing students ‘performance in science especial in chemistry. Franzer et al.,(1992)stressed that professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school have insufficient of equipment and material necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality and also TLM are the most important in knowing science in real life. Franzer et al, Abdullah (1982) said that TLM are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. This means that TLM is the most important in useful in teaching and learning science and they affect students’ performance in sciences permanently. Based on Clegg.et-al.(2008) science education in African countries is at most universally in-adequate. He showed that African has the problem in science especial in RWANDA where the big number of students they don’t liked sciences, this brought the problem of lack of doctors, engineers and researchers.

1.2 Statement Problem

Different educationalists claim that improvisation have a role to play in performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry S1students.when teaching and learning process was done by using improvisation, the performance of S1 learner was increased or improved. The act of teaching and learning by using improvisation is fundamentally concerned with ideas, skills and attitude from teacher to the learner and learner discover the lesson and understand, enjoyable that lesson. During the progression of my observation I have seen that spoken words alone in the learning instruction were ineffective and inefficient in producing out came of learners in performance. After each evaluation done in class, I saw that the result of learner was released out; there had always been failure in the work and quiz prepared.

However, the use of improvisations materials during the lesson especial in S1 chemistry during teaching and learning of science subject (chemistry) is the only way of increasing the performance of the learners.as student conducted an action research at GS KABARONDO B based on information given above, I observed that the learners in ordinary level especially at GS KABARONDO B in S1 students were not performing well in science subjects due to the lack of laboratory resources; therefore, there is a need of using improvisation materials to concretize the lesson or the lesson more understandable.

1.3 Research objectives

This research aimed to attain the following objectives;
To demonstrate the importance of improvisation in performance of learner of S1 in chemistry.
To apply improvisation strategy in improving performance of learners in chemistry subject at GS kabarondo B
To assess the efficacy of this strategy in increasing performance of S1 in chemistry.
1.4 Research Question
This study was guided by the following research question:
What is the importance of Improvisation in of teaching and learning?
how can improvisation be applied in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo b?
What is the impact of improvisation in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo B
1.5 Significance of The Study
it is more important for Rwandan community and GS kabarondo B in particular to know the important of teaching and learning by using improvisation in improving the performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry.
The findings from this study will benefit the following people:
For students, improvisation will help them to understand and enjoyable the lesson especial science subject(chemistry).
For teachers, Improvisation will help teacher to improve learner’s attitudes and skills by conducting different experiment during the lesson of chemistry, it produces the big role in increasing the performance of learners. Moreover, teaching and learning by using improvisation materials reduce financial problem in government and GS kabarondo B.
As intern, is very importance to use laboratory resources at GS kabarondo B, as the use of laboratory materials give the learners opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in teaching and learning process, especial in chemistry S1.
Consequently, the knowledge passed into the students at different levels of educational instructional should be well planned; hence the significance of this studies the students, teachers, curriculum, educational system and the society are large. Moreover, government of RWANDA can use this document to identify problems in teaching and learning science and also to predict solution to these problems or the way of solving them.

SECTION TWO: LITERATURE RIVIEW

2.1 Introductions

In this chapter two we are going to look at concepts, opinions and ideas from authors about improvisation in teaching and learning materials and about learner’s performance. In this chapter, we will look at some theories related to our research.

2.2 Definition of key concept
Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008).
Teaching and learning materials: According to Beth Lewis (2016) in the field of education, the term TLM (Teaching and Learning Materials) refers to a spectrum of educational materials that teachers use in the classroom to support specific learning objectives, as set out in lesson plans.
Performance: according to business dictionary performance “is the accomplishment of a given task measured against the preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed”
2.3 Improvisation in the Teaching of Chemistry.
Teaching and learning by using available local resource(materials) is one way of promote effective teaching and learning in schools. They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008). Ndirangu et al (2003) investigated the effective use of improvised materials designed by science teacher during their teaching practice. This study presented evidence that improvised teaching aids designed by science teachers during practice had a great influence in the teaching of science in school. These materials were found to be available and not expensive. The teacher of science should motivate to make their own teaching resource from the local available materials of science.
According to Montuori (2003) taught about ‘the complexity of improvisation and improvisation of complexity” in which he stresses the importance of not reading improvisation as deficiency, but rather as something fundamental to our existence in the world:
Improvisation might be said to serve at least a dual role or allowing us to adapt in our own way to complex environments, and to express our own complexity through the performance of our interaction with the world. the concept of improvisation is, I believe, it is important in education because it increase the performance of learner when it is use in teaching and learning.
Ndikubwayo (2017) said that science should be different subject like history or literature that why the school should have the laboratory well equipped Chemistry, Physics and Biology. these laboratories have everything inside, the teachers not only conduct science experiment but also use improvisation at least once a week and they are highly motivated to do so. When asked how they motivate their future students who will go to primary school and encounter with the problem of the lack of laboratory, the answer given was «they will come up with making their own locally materials as the curriculum requirements include the use of several and locally made materials» Ndikubwayo believes that the teaching and learning by using improvisation, is important in increasing finance of school, and performance of learner.
In addition, according to the statement of Hunk and Zimmer man (2006) which says that if I study hard for next test, I’ m going to do well. this describes that by improvisation of lesson in teaching and learning materials, helps learners to study hard as they become more attentive.
Conclusion
As definition of improvisation said that« They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008) » this show us use of improvisation in teaching and learning has great impact in performance of learner.
2.4 Importance of Using Improvisation Materials
Now days, the government and schools in general require the use of low expenses in finance, that is why as teachers we need to use improvisation material in teaching and learning. Improvisation has the importance of increasing the economy of country as per the definition said above.
According to Jeff, S (2014), The reasons for Teachers to use improvisation in the classroom are the following.
. Practice what you preach, improve will make a more positive and creative teacher. yes, is a refreshing answer for students to hear from you, too. improve will make you a better listener in the classroom, and more open to new directions your class might take.
. Discover new stars, you will find there is a group of students who excel at this kind of work and received positive feedback from you and their peers. For many of these students, being a star in an academic setting will be anew feeling. that’s a one of kind motivator and can make a big difference in a child’s life.
. Creating same thing that’s truly shared, creating is a high-level critical thinking skill, and when you have created same thing as a class or group for which no individual can take credit, you have created something very special, indeed.
Perhaps it’s a story your students wrote the beginning of one word at a time. or a new invention that can be examined later individually or in small groups.
. foster collaboration in groups, there is a place for assigning roles among group members, but same times what you want is a true collaboration where everyone pitches in as an assemble. An improvisational component can help with almost any group assignment.
. build public speaking skills, for students who are nervous about getting up in front of the class to present, playing improve games and following directions with their friends can be a great way to prepare. They have the safety of the group and can join in the fun as they feel comfortable. This can make the front of the class seem like a less scary place.
For those students who already have confidence presenting –but need to work on volume and clarity improve provides an opportunity both for them to practice and you to coach them. Moreover, the observational learning theory of Albert Bandura (1977) behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. This help learner to imitate during teaching and learning by using improvisation and help them to improve in performing in science (chemistry)especial in S1 students.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction
This chapter refers to set of factors influencing students’ performance and technics used to improve student’s performance in science especial in chemistry S1. In this chapter there is same method and procedures used while selecting the study population, research instrument and research design including methods used in data collection and data analysis.
3.2 description of the area of the study
As it is said above the area of our study is GS KABARONDO B which is located in Eastern province, Kayonza district, Kabarondo sector, nearest of ES KABARONDO, at 10m from the principal road Kayonza-Kabarondo.
My action research has been conducted at GS KABARONDO B because, it is where my internship is conducted and even the problem in hand (Improving S1 students’ performance in chemistry through improvisation technique) has been founded there when conducted teaching practice at this school.

3.3. Research population

My research population is composed by the following categories: Learners and Teachers. Research population is 140 among them 134 are students and 6 are teachers

3.4. sampling techniques or sampling procedures
For S1 students, I used stratified random sampling method
For students of senior one 42/140 ×100=30
For teachers 6/140×100=4
3.5 research instruments
This research, the researcher used questionnaires. Questionnaires comprised open, closed and multiple choice questions. The observation and documentation was done to state and confirm the lack of laboratory materials and insufficiency of teaching learning materials while teaching and learning sciences and its increase the effect on students’ performance.
3.5.1. Questionnaire
This method indicates the set of cleared and structured questions to be addressed to the sample chosen to obtained real information and this method was applied to the teachers. I set five questionnaires where each one contains four questions (2multiple-choice questions and 2 open questions) and on the ground, questionnaire was distributed to the five teachers that are available. Before answering, I explained the purpose of the questions asked in order avoiding confusion.
3.5.2. observation
According to Longman dictionary observation is the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time.
As teacher to be, during internship conducted at GS Kabarondo B, I have observed the lack of laboratory and insufficiency of teaching learning materials while teaching and learning sciences and its effects on learners’ performance, and from this observation, I had decided to made the research on this problem and find out the possible solutions.

3.6 Conclusion
This chapter described the methods used in data collection, procedures adopted and research materials used that helped to get the reliable and acceptable information. The recorded answers are analyzed and interpreted, that gives this, and also give the conclusion. To do this, I have been supported by information collection methods (questionnaire, and observation) and various technique.
SECTION FOUR: DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND ENTERPRETATION
4.1. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter four I focus with the collection of information from the respondents; I analyzed them and I interpreted them, the light of the research objectives and research questions.
4.2 importance of improvisation in improving S1 performance in Chemistry
In order to know how students’ performance in learning science subject, researcher asked the question to answer and the data collected are given in the table below.
Table1; learning process at GS KABARONDO B
Which of the following ways do you use in increasing performance in science lessons?
1.Reading note 2.Doing more exercises 3.Explanation from the teacher by using improvisation material
Number of S1A Agree 1 2 7 10
% 10 20 70 100%
Number S1B
Agree 2 3 5 10
% 20 30 50 100%
Number of S1C Agree 4 1 5 10
% 40 10 50 100%

According to the information in the table above, it clear that the learning process in science at GS KABARONDO B is theoretical and practically with use improvisation materials during teaching.
Therefore, this makes learners to understand and enjoyable the lesson.
The results from S1A is higher compared to S1B and S1C as seen in the table above. Because the teaching and learning by using improvisation for S1B and S1c is less than S1A.

4.3 using improvisation strategy to increase performance in S1 at GS kabarondo B
Researcher asked a question to detect whether science teachers show learners the application of science in dairy life. The data collected from respondents are the following;
Table;2 relevance of learning science at GS kabarondo b
How often does teacher tell you the importance of learning science
Always before starting course Same time before starting course None
Number of S1A agree 7 2 1 10
% 70 20 10 100%
Number S1B
agree 5 2 3 10
% 50 20 30 100%
Number of S1C agree 6 3 2 10
% 60 30 20 100%

The data in the table two, show that science teachers provide the application of science in everyday life. When the students learn knowing the real importance of what they learn, this increase their interest and motivation of learning that lesson. According to the data collected there is clear to the difference between S1B and S1C other class where S1A said that teachers always told them the importance of learning science before starting the course, then in senior one, in terms did their best to make sciences enthusiastic and interesting hence they show the relevance of science in daily life by using the application of the theories and professional skills acquired from CE Rukara campus. According to Kelly.J.etal., they confirmed that their study where evaluated the interaction of motivation and ability with study time and its effects on academic performance of learner. The results suggested that none ability variables like motivation and study time significantly interact with ability to influence the academic performance.

4.4 Teaching and learning materials used at GS kabarondo b
The question was asked to know the types of teaching and learning material used at GS KABARONDO B. the answer respondents are the following;
Which teaching and learning material do you often use when learning sciences?
Science books lab materials audio visual material
Number % Number % Number %
14 31.1 20 44.4 15 33.3
30 68.2 25 55.5 30 66.6

According to the result showed in the table above S1A is the one dominant compared to the other classes because of teachers using improvised material in chemistry, moreover the learner have curiosity to know science in deep. This also supported by oyediran, I (2010) that need for definite well planned training program of improvisation for teachers.
This is caused by the fact that the teacher assume improvisation of TLM to be time consuming hence they use a few available laboratory materials. As state by pivio. A (1971) saying that a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information shows that the use of teaching and learning materials helps learners in the acquisition knowledge.
4.5 Impact of improvisation among S1 students in chemistry subject at GS kabarondo B
The impact of improvisation to S1 students at GS kabarondo B is more described in the table below which shows the performance of S1 learners before and after teaching Chemistry by using improvisation.
Results of evaluation
Class Subject topic Before using improvisation After using improvisation
Participants Pass % Fail % Participants Pass % Fail %
S1A Mixture 43 17 39.5 26 60 43 40 93 3 7
S1B Mixture 45 16 35.5 29 64 45 35 77.7 10 22.2

As it is observed in the table above, the number of students who pass were increase from 17 up to 40 in S1A and from 16 up 35 in S1B, this explained the importance of improvisation in education especial in chemistry.
4.6 Insufficient of teaching and learning material at GS kabarondo B
A question was asked to teachers to detect the availability of TLM. the data collected are given in the following table.
Question Responses
Do you have enough TLM to teach science subject? Yes
5 %
83.3 No
1 %
16.66
If yes which type of TLM do you have? Improvised Lab material

According to the table above, it is clear that TLM are insufficient at GS kabarondo B as shown by respondents answer. The remaining part of respondent re plied that the teaching and learning material that are available are mostly improvised ones. Moreover, using improvised instructional material assists the teacher economically and also allow students interaction which makes students to understand well the lesson. And also it helps the students use the intellectual ability during learning and teaching process. This helped by oyediran, I (2010) said that the countries rely on improvisation skills to overcome the problem of insufficient and learning materials.
4.7 frequency of using TLM at GS KABARONDO B
I have seen the insufficient of TLM at GS KABARONDO B research had curious to know how often teachers teach by using TLM. The data is given below
How often do you teach science subjects by using TLM?
Sometime Always Never
Respondents Number % Number % Number %
Teachers 4 66.6 2 33.3 0 0.0

The result in the table above shows that many of the teachers sometimes use TLM while teaching sciences. Shortage of TLM at GS KABARONDO B, teachers arrange themselves to improvise teaching learning materials. Therefore, observation has shown that some teachers do not use TLM for most of the topics taught and when they try to use them, same times these TLM are different instruction materials to help learners to learn and understand what they learn.
Improvisation help learners to understand the content taught and that TLM help teacher to concretize the science by helping learners to see real life application of science. And so the relevance of TLM to the objective of the lesson and the use of instructional materials are serious considerations utilization to better the learner’s performance. This also proved by Nwachukwu. (2006) that TLM are devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting knowledge, skills and attitude to the learner.
4.8 challenges in using TLM at GS KABARONDO B
Insufficient and the frequency use of TLM, researcher asked a question to detect problems and challenges. The data from respondents are recorded here in table below,
Question Responses
Do you have problems in using TLM when teaching sciences? Yes % No %
5 83.33 1 16.66
If yes, what are those problems? Preparation of TLM % Selection of LM %
4 66.6 2 33.3

Result from the above table show that teachers at GS KABARONDO B meet with challenges in the use of TLM. The many challenges met by the teachers is the preparation of TLM (improvised materials) this because among teachers that we used there, same were not scientist. Inter want to know the root of this problem and challenges, most challenges are insufficient or low time of preparation and low skills of teaching and learning materials. Moreover, the teacher requires to be trained in other to be professional in using local resource(materials) for science teaching. This is also proved by Oyediran. I.(2010) that need for a definite training program of improvisation for teachers.
4.9 teachers’ contribution for the effective teaching and learning process
Reacher asked the question with purpose to know the contribution of teachers to teach effectively and efficiently science at GS KABARONDO B. the result is recorded below.
As the teachers who are at the school which is not well equipped, what is your contribution so as to teach effectively science subjects?
Field study By using lecturing method By using improvised material
Respondents Number % Number % Number %
Teachers 0 0.0 4 66.66 2 33.3

As the table show us, most the teachers have said that they improvise the lesson during teaching and learning, even they have low level in improvisation skills. Whereas other teacher uses field study in order to show the real life application of science. In addition, the teacher require training about how they improvise the lesson in terms of increasing improvisation skill in order to overcome the insufficiency of TLM at GS KABARONDO B. TLM help in the elaboration and performance of experiments and to show the relevance of learning sciences. At complete of study, students get familiar and knowledgeable of naturally occurring scientific processes. This also proved by oyediran, I (2010) that need for definite well planned training program of improvisation for teacher. Most of teachers have showed that teaching and learning material help teachers in delivery the courses. Other respondents have said that teaching and learning materials help learner to be active in the lesson, with this, the performance of students are improved.
The teacher at GS KABARONDO B suggested that to increase the performance of learners in this school, firstly telling the role of experiments in sciences and do many practice in science subjects, increase the teaching and learning by using improvised materials. In addition to that, familiarize learners to use techniques needed to facilitate them in learning science subjects about teaching and learning material used in teaching and learning process depend on the topic and subject.
Conceptualization
In general, this research aims to remove the obstacles of teaching Chemistry in absent or low of teaching materials by increasing the performance of students and increase the country economy. In addition to that The memory of brain remembers faster what we have been observed lather than what we hear. This theory explained the importance of using improvisation during teaching and learning for students, as we have seen in above. Moreover, improvisation is teaching by using local material in absence of teaching material. This improve students’ performance as they learn by observation. as theory said, students improve intellectual knowledge and remember what they have observed during teaching and learning chemistry.

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter five, I discussed how the research findings fit with research objectives. After discussing every research objective, I had to make conclusion.
5.2 discussion
5.2.1 role of teaching and learning by using improvisation in learning sciences at GS kabarondo B
The presents or absence of improvisation materials affect the level of understanding of students, their performance and their conduct during teaching and learning process. According to the respondents agree that, about the effect of improvisation material during teaching and learning there is positive and negative effect to the performance and understanding of learner.
5.2.2 students out come and understanding in sciences
According to the information collected and to my own observation, the students’ outcomes and understanding in sciences is not as low as allowing but as low as impossible through the use of adequate and available local resource in improvisation of lesson. For improvements in student’s outcomes and understanding sciences, teacher have to show the relevance example in learning sciences in real life and so to meet the intellectual curiosity of learners’ satisfaction.
5.3 conclusion
The role of teaching and learning materials in learning science is shown by research to be important for the performance of students in sciences as they foster the level of understanding in sciences especially when improvised materials are used in a consistent way and specific with the content to be taught.
According to the data collected from our respondents and basing to my observation, I conclude that performance and understanding in science in GS kabarondo B is neither lower nor higher but they require improving in using improvisation materials. The insufficient of teaching and learning materials affect the methodology of teaching and learning.
Finally, the interest of students in science is at medium level and has to be caused by insufficient and effective use of improvisation material during teaching and learning science. The interest give the confidence to the learners in learning science that why we have to use the local resources in teaching and learning as professional teachers will increase the acquisition and performance of learners at higher level.

5.4 recommendation
The researcher recommends that teaching and learning materials by using improvised material should be used as to help to teach when the standard ones are not available in rural areas, where the teaching and learning material are few as trained teachers we have to use the local resources that are available in that region. Also science teachers who have access to teach science are advised to use improvisation to assist the students to discovery the usefulness of materials in environment. Moreover, these material are not expansive, safe and available to use for each student in the lesson if these materials are used.
Furthermore, education departments should set the time table to train teachers to prepare improvisation materials during teaching and learning, especial rural area teachers, beyond these, the researcher recommends that teachers training institution (example ur ce) should incorporate the use of improvisation in their curriculum.

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