Abstract An exploration on the factors that lead teenagers into gangsterism The aim of the study was to explore the factors that lead teenagers to engage in gangsterism

Abstract
An exploration on the factors that lead teenagers into gangsterism
The aim of the study was to explore the factors that lead teenagers to engage in gangsterism. The study was qualitative in nature. The population of this study consisted of six teenage males’ gang members, 2 parents and 2 teachers. Non probability sampling as well as purposive sampling were used to select participants. A semi structured interview was used as a data collection tool in this study. The researcher used an interview guide in this study which was conducted at Langeloop village during August 2017.
The researcher found that gangsterism is contributed by peer pressure and the socio economic background of the family. For instance, most of the teenagers involved in gangsterism were doing it because they wanted to fit in, and others did it because of poverty.

Declaration
I, Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane, hereby declare that this mini thesis for the Bachelor of Arts, Youth in Development at the University of Venda, hereby submitted by me, has not been previously submitted for a degree, at this or any other institution according to my best knowledge, and that this is my own work in design and execution. All reference materials contained therein have been properly acknowledged.

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Signature. ……………………………. Date…………………………….

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the lord Jehovah who made this possible
I would also like to express my love and appreciation to the following people who significantly contributed to the completion of my studies:
My late loving mom ms Buyisile Mildreth Mondlane for believing in me and for being the best friend I ever had. I love and miss you.

My one and only loving and caring brother Penuel Mhlongo for being there for me under all circumstances.

My daughter’s paternal grandparents Mr and Mrs Mqobokazi for taking care of my baby while I was studying. That means a lot to me. I will never forget that.

My loving boyfriend Thama Makwarela for his love and support.

My supervisor mr Mabasa A, and all the respondents who participated in the study.

Dedication
I would like to dedicate my work to my late mom ms Buyisile Mildreth Mondlane who have been encouraging and motivating me to be the best. As I grow up I am realizing that I fought with you so much. Even when, all you wanted was for me to win the fight with the demons inside my head. I love you mom. You are the flower of my heart. I would also like to dedicate my work to my beautiful daughter Faithful Ingiphile Mqobokazi who was sent by Jehovah to rescue me because in your eyes I see who I want to be.

Table of contents
Abstract
Declaration
Acknowledgements
Dedication
Editor’s declaration
Chapter one
Chapter one
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background of the study
1.3 Problem statement
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Objectives of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 definition of concepts
Chapter 2
2. Literature review
2.1 introduction
2.2 Preliminary Literature review
2.3 Theoretical framework
2.4 Criminal Gang Types
2.4.1 Street Gangs 
2.4.2 Prison Gangs
2.4.3 Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs 
2.5 Other common categories used to classify gangs:
2.5.1 National Gangs
2.5.2 Traditional Gangs 
2.5.3 Nation Sets 
2.5.4 Non-Traditional Gang 
2.5.5 Hybrid Gangs 
2.5.6 Extremist/Hate Groups 
2.5.7 Occult Groups 
2.6 Factors that may lead teenagers into gangsterism
2.6.1 A need for recognition and belonging
2.6.2 Academic failure
2.6.3 Aggressiveness
2.6.4 Child maltreatment
2.6.5 Poor parental supervision
2.6.6 Substance abuse
2.6.7 Community disorganization
2.6.8 Poverty
2.6.9 Family history or tradition
2.6.10 Multimedia
2.6.11 Low self esteem
2.7 Negative impacts of teenager gang involvement
2.7.1 Insecurity
2.7.2 Injury
2.7.3 Loss of life
2.7.4 Stigmatization of the family
2.7.5 Dark future
2.7.6 Detention
2.7.7 Unemployment
2.7.8 Disadvantages the condition of the society
2.7.9 Loss of freedom
2.8 Gang attitude
2.9 Gang territory
2.10 Gang warfare
2.11 Prevention Efforts
2.11.1 The Comprehensive Gang Model
2.11.2 Mentoring
2.11.3 Advice and guidance by the school’s counselors
2.11.4 Strict enforcement by the authorities.

2.12 Conclusion
Chapter 3
3. Research methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Nature of the study
3.3 Research design
3.4 Population and location of the study
3.5 Sampling procedure
3.6 Data collection and instrument
3.7 Data analysis
3.8 Ethical consideration
3.8.1 Informed consent
3.8.2 Confidentiality
3.8.3 Avoidance of harm
3.8.4 Voluntary participation
3.8.5 Violation of privacy
3.8.6 Debriefing of participants
Conclusion
Chapter 4
4. Presentation of the findings
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The socio-economic background of gangs
4.3 Types of families where gangsters come from
4.4 Mass media’s responsibility
4.5 Negative peer networks
4.6 Exposure to violent behaviour
4.7 A desire for protection
Chapter 5
5.1 introduction
5.2 Study Limitations
5.3 Implications of the study
5.4 Conclusion
5.5 Recommendations
5.5.1 The Home
5.5.2 The School
5.5.3 Community
5.5.4 Intervention
5.5.5 Enforcement
References
Chapter one
Introduction
Gangsterism in the context of the study may be defined as the culture of belonging to organized gangs of criminals’ especially involving violence (Standing, 2005). Teenagers these days lack focus. They do not know where they are heading, whether in the academic or social sense. Therefore, this gives rise to several problems, mostly gangsterism happens among the teenagers who are involved in social ills such as drug addicts, drinking alcohol, smoking and gambling. These teenagers are not concerned about their studies or anything in life, so they end up getting themselves into gangsterism.

Gangsterism is a complex phenomenon existing in countries all over the world. Young people between the ages of 12 and 24 are commonly involved in gangs with the majority being male (Keiser, 2012). This chapter briefly discusses the concept of gangsterism and why it is a problem globally and in southern Africa in particular. This chapter includes the study’s problem statement, research question, and significance of the study, aim and objectives as well as the definition of concepts.

Background of the study
Gangs are most commonly viewed as an American phenomenon, though teenage gangs have been stated across many countries (Keiser, 2012). The literature on international gangs is scarce, most frequently just reporting gang’s existence in a certain country. The research that has been conducted overseas commonly focuses on the characteristics of gangs and gang’s participation in criminal activity. Nevertheless, gangs in many other countries share many characteristics with American gangs.

Gangs in the United States include several types of groups, including national street gang’s local street gangs, prison gangs, motor cycle gangs, and ethnic and organized gangs. Approximately 1.4 million people were part of gangs as of 2011, and more than 33,000 gangs were active in the United States (Keiser, 2012). Many American gangs started, and still exist, in urban areas. In many cases, national street gangs formed in major cities such as Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Miami, and New York City, and they later migrated to other American cities such as Atlanta, Boston, Cleveland, Kansas City, st Louis, Dallas, Memphis, New Orleans, Milwaukee, Orlando, Houston, Detroit and Tampa.

Research in Canada was mainly focused on Asian gangs, describing Chinese gangs in Vancoir and Vietnamese gangs in Toronto. Robert Gordon emphasized the ethnic diversity of Vancouver gangs, disagreeing that although these gangs always have ethnic names, a few of them are actually composed of the members of the same ethnic group. Gordon (2014) suggested that the reason behind that is because the educational and health systems as well as the social services at the Canadian cities are more active at addressing the problems linked with gangsterism. Mexican gangs appear very similar to Cholo culture of the Hispanic gangs of the south west United States, being similar in territoriality, gang conflicts, graffiti, and criminal activities. Though, American gangs also seem to be a vast difference in their actions particularly gangs in urban and rural areas (Taylor, 2011).The limited research on gangs in Asia shows that youth gang in Malaysia and Thailand commit a quite large stake of the total crime there. Chinese triads have gained a lot of attention from the media; however, these triads are mostly composed of adult males rather than juveniles. These trios may have a specific role that they play in youth gangs (Taylor, 2011). They may serve as a blueprint for youth gang structure and activities and also engaging new members for the trios. Chinese youth gangs focused in theft and drugs have been stated, as well as other gangs that are involved in a lot of different criminal activities and are more varied in age, number of members, and degree of territoriality.

Youth gangs are also common all over Europe. Gangs committed a large portion of total crime in Spain in the 1980s but few gangs exist currently (Klein, 2015). After some time of absence, gangs have reemerged in France although they are still much less predominant than in the United States. At least in Paris, the reemergence of gangs is thought to have been spurred by the increase in drug trafficking and the growth of the underclass (kroeker and Haut, 2015). Generally, it may be impossible to find no gangs in Africa because of the state of the state of socioeconomic and political affairs that affects the growth and nurturing of Africa. To begin with, one can contextualize aging generally as a group of associating individuals with a form of leadership and internal organization, identifying with or claiming power over territory in a community, and engaging in violent or other forms of illegal behavior.
During the past decade, organized gangs have increased in the western Kenya region. Most of them have been blacklisted by the government intelligence arm for having severally obeyed the rule of law. Although organized gangs may seem to be dangerous, the visible members are able to change themselves into loose gangs to prevent any security compromise (Gordon, 2014). In Kenya, the gangs are born due to issues relating unemployment, weak justice system, corruptible law enforcement systems, poverty, ignorance, widened socio-economic class, inequality and moral reprehension. The police service has failed to deal with the strategies of gangs, particularly where their activities are not too obvious because of lack of information for tactical and strategic use. Most of the articles which are written online shows that the same police service has been blamed for been reluctant in arresting gang members and in the process defying intelligence collected.

While South Africa’s transition from autocratic to democratic governance is often described as a miracle, this miracle has also created an environment in which the production, distribution, and consumption of illegal drugs flourishes. Moreover, as both a function of history and contemporary problems, the South African state has failed to create a more equitable and productive society, the result of which is that members of many communities continue to be economically isolated, political disenfranchised, and socially excluded. Into this void, the lure and draw of gangsterism has become very powerful, especially in the Western Cape region. Taken together, the gangs provide angry young people an identity while the financial accruements of the trade in the many illegal drugs gives them the ability to express that identity (Kroeker et al, 2015). Problematically, the laws that the South African state relies on in order to police and prevent the illegal production, distribution, and use of drugs, and those that target gangsterism, are symptomatic and frequently inadequate.
In South Africa, more especially in the Western Cape province, gangsterism has been present for year, especially among the lower socioeconomic colored community living in the cape flats. Standing associated the increased prevalence of gangsterism in this community to the forced removals, in accordance with the group areas act of 1950 of the south African apartheid era. During this time the colored people, mostly of district 6 were relocated to the cape flats, causing much disorganization within the community. Where previous delinquent behavior by the youth was largely managed and informally controlled by parents, neighbors and extended family in the pre-apartheid era.
Forced removals led to a breakdown in the social control and networks of this community. Criminal gangs steal and destroy property, sell drugs to the children and commit acts of Violence and brutality that threaten the safety and security of the residents at Langeloop village. The number of gang and gang members has been growing steadily in Langeloop for years. For too long efforts to address gang problems in South Africa have been left to local law enforcement and community leaders with minimal federal and state support and no stated strategy.
1.3 Problem statement
Criminal gangs pose a significant and growing threat to the safety and security of the citizens of Langeloop. It is a reality that being a member of a youth gang is risky and disadvantageous in the sense that one is more likely to be involved in illegal behavior and engage in illegal activities and more likely to be caught by the police and get imprisoned. Nevertheless, youth gangs still enjoy the popularity they have in our society.
More and more teenagers become gang members wherein they learn behaviors which are not acceptable to the society and that only place them at risk. Gangs have a long history in our society and it may be unrealistic to believe that we can completely eliminate gangs in our society (Hagedorn, 2013). At the same time, it has been alarming to find out how fast gangs spread across the villages, cities and state, taking dominion on communities and overpowering law enforcements.
Gang leaders are the higher tiers of the gang’s command. This gang member is probably the oldest in the group, possibly has the least criminal record, and they mostly have the supremacy to direct the gang’s action, whether they are involved or not. In many authorities, this person is likely a jail gang associate calling the shots from within the custodial system or is on parole. Often, they distance themselves from the street gang activities and make attempts to appear legitimate, possibly operating a business that they run as fronts for the gang’s drug dealing or other illegal operations.

Many teenagers that are involved in gangs have challenges and barriers they have to go through life. Even though society see them as low-life, street trash, the truth is they are trying to live a regular life even though they do some bad things that society don’t like, it is their way of getting through life as they struggle to survive in the world.

Communities affected by gang-related violence may be less motivated to develop stable and effective partnerships with their local police. Those partnerships must be built through sustained effort and clear policies regarding officers’ responsibilities to residents. Residents may hesitate to become involved in violence-prevention projects because they may be threatened by the gang. Coordination among police, prosecutors, probation services, social agencies, churches, and other resources helps residents feel comfortable and supported in their involvement
1.4 Purpose of the study
This study seeks to explore and understand the factors that contribute to a teenager’s desire to join a gang. This research also seeks to gain an understanding that why some young people join gangs while others do not.
1.5 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
To identify the factors that attracts teenagers into joining gangs.

To explore on the effects of gangsterism on the teenagers.
To find out about the daily challenges of the life of a young gangster.

To present the strategies of preventing gangsterism.
1.6 Research questions
The research questions of this study are as follows:
What are the factors that lead teenagers to join gangs?
What are the consequences of being a teenage gangster?
What are the daily challenges of the life of young gangster?
What could be done to keep the teenagers at Langeloop village away from gangsterism?
1.7 Significance of the study
By studying the factors that lead teenagers to join gangs, the appropriate stakeholders would be in a better position to offer programs and information that would keep the teenagers from joining gangs, hence we would have a better society, a more positive, creative and promising youth and less crime rates, delinquency and violence.

1.8 definition of concepts
Anti-social behavior: anti-social behavior covers a wide range of unacceptable activities that causes harm to an individual, to their community or to their environment. This could be an action by someone else that leaves you feeling alarmed, harassed or distressed. It also includes fear of crime or concern for public safety, public disorder or public nuisance (Nott et al, 2010:6).

Crime: an act committed in violation of the law where the consequence of conviction by a court is punishment, especially where the punishment is a serious one such as imprisonment.

Delinquency: Nott et al (2010:6) defined delinquency as a criminal behaviour especially that carried out by a juvenile. Depending on the nation of origin, a juvenile becomes an adult anywhere between the ages of 15 to 18, although the age is sometimes lowered for murder and other serious crimes. Delinquency implies conduct that does not conform to the legal or moral standards of the society; it usually applies to acts that would be termed criminally if they were performed to adults.

Gang: Pinnock (2017) referred to a gang as a group of good friends or family with identifiable leadership and internal organization, identifying with or claiming control over territory in a community, and engaging either individually or collectively in illegal or violent behavior. Some criminal gang members are “jumped in” or have to prove their loyalty by committing acts such as theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster or a thug
Gangsterism: Pinnock (2017) referred to gangsterism as a phenomenon which includes the formation of groups with the aim of committing violence and crime, and to defend themselves physically against violence of other groups. Gangsterism is often characterized as anti-social behavior.

Teenager: Nott et al (2010:6) defines a teenager as a young person whose age falls within the range from 13-19. They are called teenagers because their age ends with teen.

Territory: Pinnock (2017:42) defines a territory as a certain area that is owned or under the control of someone. In this study territory refers to a section of a community that gangs claim to be their own.
Violence: is defined by the world health organization as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation (Pinnock, 2017:42).

Chapter 2
2. Literature review
2.1 introduction
This chapter reviews the literature with regard to the information on the effects of gangsterism on youth. According to Babbie (2008) literature review creates a foundation, based on existing related knowledge. The researcher reviews the literature looking at what the previous authors have contributed on the area of gangsterism. The researcher reviewed literature from textbooks, journal articles, and other documents that support the study. The study will be focused on the causes of gangsterism on teenagers, as well as the effects of teenager’s participation in gangsterism.
In this chapter the preliminary literature review is presented, whereby the researcher reviewed the literature from previous researchers and focused on their weak points. The researcher included the preliminary literature in order to be able to include the issues, and the main findings and the gaps in literature. The review focuses mainly on electronically accessible research articles and on research published after 2007.

The theoretical framework is presented in this chapter to identify the theory that explains the major causes of gangsterism, however the researcher is mostly interested in the role of the theory in the study rather than the theory itself. The criminal gang types, other common categories used to classify gangs, gang warfare, and gang attitude, factors that may lead teenagers into gangsterism, negative impacts of teenager gang involvement, and the prevention efforts are also presented in this chapter.

2.2 Preliminary Literature review
Gangs never used to be called gangs, and some still do not call themselves gangs (Klein, 2011) Even though several gang affiliates perceive themselves as a family or neighbourhood, it is keen that gangs are basically a criminal initiative. This review of literature will inspect the factors that contribute to the cause of the youth coming together to commit crimes, as well as the question of whether the decisions made to join gangs are forced or made at free will. An enlightenment for the growth of gangs is the continuance of life-threatening poverty and isolation among the group considered ‘at risk’ in our cities. The label that these individuals are all offenders has become one of the reasons gangs rebel against the society.

Klein (1994) found that gang members mostly come from dysfunctional, abusive, or broken homes, poor living conditions, and lack of parental discipline, neglect and low incomes. Many studies have shown that a deficiency of time to spend nurturing and appropriately disciplining children can be a substantial cause for delinquent behaviour. The National Centre of Health Statistics in 1988 revealed that children’s well-being is linked with family structure. Children with divorced parents and those who are staying with single parents have been found to have more emotional, behavioural, and academic difficulties than children living with both biological parents.

The researcher concurred that the upbringing of gang members from a dysfunctional home is not really the cause of the problem, but the status brought on stresses and strains that contributed to the deprivation of good parenting. The researcher suggests that the society has to acknowledge that children growing up have needs: support, love, respect, fair discipline and a family with positive social values. If these fundamentals are not a strong part of childhood growth, the child may become antisocial as a youth.

Study done for the Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada (1985) reviewed the literature on family relationships and delinquency and reached the conclusions that family criminality, whether it be parents or siblings, is a powerful predictor of children’s delinquency, and parental supervision, followed by mother’s affection during childhood, seem to be the two most significant reasons for adolescent criminality. Most gang members have nothing to live for, apart from their hood. They pledge loyalty to their local gang and it becomes their complete world, their family. Their loyalty is severe Heredity
While bad neighbourhoods and lack of moral education is blamed for the formation of gangs, some studies indicate that the desire to join gangs could be, at least in part of their genes (“Boys May Feel a Genetic Pull Toward Gangs”). Spergel (2009) argues that more persistent and violent criminals were born that way. They were throwbacks to a more primitive stage of development.

He also defined a criminal as “an atavistic being who reproduces in his person the ferocious instincts of primitive humanity and the inferior animals,” stating that these people generally have “enormous jaws, high cheekbones, prominent superciliary curves, solitary lines in the palms, extreme size of the orbits, handle-shaped or sessile ears found in criminals, savages, and apes; insensibility to pain, extremely acute sight, tattooing, excessive idleness, love of orgies, and the irresistible craving for evil for its own sake, the desire not only to extinguish life in the victim, but to mutilate the corpse, tear its flesh, and drink its blood. Also, those born with criminal traits “start lawless activities at an early age, and constantly demonstrate anger, a spirit of revenge, idleness, volubility and lack of affection. It is said that aggressive behaviour is one of the early signs of antisocial and criminal tendencies
2.3 Theoretical framework
Strain theory is a sociology and criminology theory developed in 1938 by Robert K Merton. The theory states that society puts pressure on individuals to achieve socially accepted goals (such as the American dream) however, they lack the means, this causes strain which may lead the individuals to commit crimes such as selling drugs or becoming involved in prostitution to gain financial security. This refers to the processes at the societal level which filter down and affect how the individual sees and understands his needs.
The role of the strain theory in this study is to identify how particular social structures are fundamentally insufficient or there is poor regulation, this may change the individual’s perceptions as to means and opportunities. By the use of the strain theory, the researcher apprehended that the frictions and pains experienced by the gangster teenager as he looks for ways to satisfy his needs if the goals of a society become important to an individual, actually achieving them may become more important than the socially approved means.

The researcher used the strain theory to show how the society can inspire deviance to a large degree. Merton believed that socially accepted goals put pressure on people to conform. People are forced to work within the system or become members of a nonstandard subgroup to accomplish the anticipated goal. The researcher concurred that the teenagers join gangs because they are faced with a gap between their goals and their current status.

The stain theory is perhaps the best theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of juvenile gang criminal activity which is occurring at Langeloop. Strain theory basically states that crime is the result of the strain placed on individuals who are not able to achieve middle class norms through legitimate means. Because they cannot meet those expectations through legitimate means they instead turn to illegitimate means (Akers & Sellers, 2013).
2.4 Criminal Gang Types
The gang phenomenon is multifaceted and dynamic in nature. According to Spergel (2009) there are persistent changes in gang culture making it hard for law enforcement to categorize gangs by demographics, colors, and gang symbols alone. Gangs differ in size of their affiliation, ethnic structure, organizational structure, associations, and types of criminal intent.

The National Gang Intelligence Center classifies gangs into three basic types such as street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs and prison gangs which are discussed as follows:
2.4.1 Street Gangs 
In the context of the study, street gangs may be defined as a street based group of teenagers with similar backgrounds and motivations who actually meets the criteria of a gang. Street gangs function throughout most of the country at the local, regional, and national levels in urban, suburban, and rural communities (Spergel, 2015).
2.4.2 Prison Gangs
Which are highly organized criminal networks that function within the central and state prison systems, and they frequently interact with criminal street gangs outside the prison system (Klein, 1971).

2.4.3 Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs 
Which are highly structured, federal organizations which function at the local, regional and national levels. Gangs are judged based on their level of risk to both public safety and national security (Klein, 2014).

2.5 Other common categories used to classify gangs:
2.5.1 National Gangs 
For example, the Los Angeles-based Bloods and Crips, and the Chicago-based Black Gangster Disciples and Latin Kings are some of the furthermost generally recognized gangs in America, most likely due to media disclosure. These groups have migrated throughout the country (Hunzeker, 2011). There are literally hundreds of sets or individual gangs under the main names; though they may share the same name, they are not inevitably associated.

2.5.2 Traditional Gangs 
According to Huizinga (2013) these historically older gangs tend to have an age-graded assemble of smaller groups or gangs, produce organizational charts and clear rules of conduct and regulations, including complete punishments for breaking gang rules.

2.5.3 Nation Sets 
These are associations, such as People Nation, and Folk Nation, under which gangs are aligned. Arrangements may vary for local jurisdictions due to competition for drug territory or violence against one another (Correl, 2011).

2.5.4 Non-Traditional Gang 
These are sometimes referred to as neighbourhood-based gangs or crews because they are exclusive to a local area. They have less structured organization and leadership than a traditional gang. They may implement the same colours, signs, and symbols of a nationally known gang or may have their own sole identifiers. Sometimes, they refer to themselves as “a rap group” to dodge the disgrace and law enforcement attention that traditional gangs attract. A non-traditional gang can develop into a traditional gang (Huff, 2013).

2.5.5 Hybrid Gangs 
Usually a local, homegrown street gang with very unclear rules, loose organizational structure and leadership because they are mostly in a state of change. Hybrid gangs may have numerous commitments; they may use symbols and colours from larger traditional gangs, even rival gangs. Members may change their associations from one gang to another. It is not unusual for a gang member to claim several gang memberships, even with opposing gangs. They are increasingly varied in race/ethnicity, gender, and economic standing. An existing hybrid gang may change their name or suddenly join with other gangs to form a new gang.

2.5.6 Extremist/Hate Groups 
Membership is based on race, religion, sexual orientation, and government ideologies characterized by supremacist, subversive, and separatist belief structures. These groups are predominantly motivated by hate and bigotry, and prone to extreme violence.

2.5.7 Occult Groups 
These are sometimes referred to as Stoners whose influences include heavy metal music and horror rap. Characteristics include gothic/vampire cult behaviours, satanic occult behaviours, or other socially unacceptable behaviours, heavy drug use, and a propensity to violence which distinguishes them from fan followers (Huizinga, 2013).

However, gangs are classified, what is important to assess is the level of danger a gang poses to a given community. Examining what types of criminal and violent activities gang members are performing in the name of their gang; where they are doing it; and what factors are contributing to members’ gang involvement are the most useful types of information when making informed decisions to implement targeted suppression, prevention, and intervention strategies.

2.6 Factors that may lead teenagers into gangsterism
2.6.1 A need for recognition and belonging
Some teenagers join gangs simply because they want to be part of a popular group,
Teenagers may feel that they do not receive enough support or attention at home. Lack of attention and caring from others may lead to the teenager doing some gangster activities to the environment just to attract attention.

2.6.2 Academic failure
Children who often perform poor academically and having learning difficulties are easily recruited by gangs.

2.6.3 Aggressiveness
When you engage in aggressive behaviour, you may feel irritable and restless. You may feel impulsive. You may find it hard to control your behaviour. You might not know which behaviours are socially appropriate. In other cases, you might act aggressively on purpose. For example, you may use aggressive behaviour to get revenge or provoke someone (Huizinga, 2013). You may also direct aggressive behaviour towards yourself. Teenagers who suffer from aggression are easy recruited to join gangs.

2.6.4 Child maltreatment
Huff (2013) stated that when children are not treated well at home they choose to leave the home or family and go to spend their time in the streets where they are eventually drawn into gangs and start engaging in gang related and criminal activities.

2.6.5 Poor parental supervision
Nowadays parents are busy working overtime to find money to feed their children and maintain the family. They do not realize that their children feel neglected. They feel like they lack parental love (Huizinga, 2013). Those parents who are very busy with work do not play their role as parents who are the people that are responsible to provide their children with a good spiritual and moral background.

2.6.6 Substance abuse
Finding by Navaro (2010) indicates that youth who engage in delinquent activities, specifically alcohol and drug use, are more likely to join gangs and that, as a result of youth gang involvement, youth are more likely to use illicit drugs and alcohol.
2.6.7 Community disorganization
Hutson (2015) has found that a community where there are no specific rules and strict enforcement from the authorities may create a good atmosphere for these youngsters to form gangs and practice their criminal behaviour in the community. The teenagers will not be afraid to commit crime because they know the rules and strict law enforcement do not exist in that community and no one will punish them even if they do something wrong.

2.6.8 Poverty
Gangs may present themselves as a means of survival to teenagers who lack basic essentials such as food, clothing and shelter. More and more, gang use their affiliation to make a profit through illegal activities, such as selling drugs and auto theft.

2.6.9 Family history or tradition
Families can have gang involvement spanning over multiple generations. This is one of the toughest forms of pressure to escape, as the gang lifestyle is deeply rooted in the family and its values.

2.6.10 Multimedia
Teenagers may also be instilled by the media to become a gangster. Nowadays multimedia such as internet, television, and radio are very popular among teenagers. Many dramas and movies show out gangster activities. Most of the movies show the character of a gangster as hero (Spears, 2015). The teenagers end up copying the character in the gangster movie and learn some bad attitude and start to think like a gangster.

2.6.11 Low self esteem
According to Horowitz (2010) teenagers with a low self-esteem are easily approached by a gang and be recruited into the organization. It is in that organization where they get to meet another teenager who are like them. They make a new family and get to spend more and more time together.

2.7 Negative impacts of teenager gang involvement
2.7.1 Insecurity
Once a teenager joins a gang, they automatically put the lives of their family and society at risk. The society will feel insecure and threatened over this matter because they will feel that the surrounding is no longer due to the violent acts of gangsters (Jackson, and McBride, 2011). The community members would normally avoid getting out of their houses because they are afraid of being victims of terrorism. All their daily activities such as sports, recreation, and so on will be reduced or stopped to ensure safety.

2.7.2 Injury
U7ually when the most feared gangs engage in a fight, their fights usually result in serious injury or even death. Some of them fight among each other just to prove superiority (Jackson, and McBride, 2011).
2.7.3 Loss of life
Klein (2014) says that the behaviour of a gangster might put their lives in danger because at some point, a gangster can turn out to be a killer. A lot of fighting is involved, and that risks lives of people. Sometimes when you join a gang they do gang initiation which may be shooting someone that you know.

2.7.4 Stigmatization of the family
By the conduct of these gangsters, their families also get impact. The community will lose faith in the family and the family’s integrity will be scratched with the teen actions. Klein (2015) concurs that parents need to receive the bad treatment as the result of their children behaviour. Most probably, parents might be insulted or becoming the subject of hatred from people in their surroundings. They might be blame for what their children had done and through other people eyes they had to be responsible. Somehow, there are parents who try so hard, in order to guide their children back to the right path. However, some children are too stubborn and ignore the advice of their respectful parents. In addition, parents need to face with reality that their children are not turn into a good person and turn out differently from what they had expected. Some parents may be depressed after realizing that their kids are risking their lives like that. The insults that the parents may receive from the society can also lead to depression.

2.7.5 Dark future
At the context of the individual, teenagers who involves themselves with gangsterism will face bad consequences in their life including having a rude future.  Thus, their future might be threatened due to the result of their character (Jackson, and McBride, 2010). Most probably they will be detained since somehow, they able to create utterly confused scene in their surroundings.

2.7.6 Detention
Horowitz (2011) found that the desires of criminal life for teenagers also affect their life as they unable to perform their study in higher on a par and they might spend their teenage years in juvenile school or rehabilitation centre.  On the stubborn, those with a bright future ingenious to continue their study while they had consumption their precious life in prison. They in addition will give a bad impact or power of impelling to the younger ones. They will come the foot step of the ranking ones in family and causing them to come the wrong path as the older ones.

2.7.7 Unemployment
Horowitz (2013) stated that teenagers who are involved in gangs may struggle to find employment at a later stage of life because of their history of crime. They might be having a criminal offense or having had dropped out of school and lacking good educational background. They may also lack the required skill to fit for certain job opportunities.

2.7.8 Disadvantages the condition of the society
In communities where gang activity dictates normal living, there are very few signs of healthy, progressive life or development. Community development projects are kept on hold as money is allocated to combat gang warfare (Huff, 2011). Law enforcement agencies take on a tough stance when it comes to these communities. As a result, innocent families also live backward, hopeless lives where their opportunities are severely curtailed by the terrifying presence of gangs
2.7.9 Loss of freedom
When you are in a gang, there are rules that you must live by. You are not able to do what you want or live your life as you wish. Failure to comply to those rules means you must suffer the consequences. Those consequences could be death or getting beaten up.

2.8 Gang attitude
According to nott (2010:6), gangs do not display feelings and vulnerability, instead they offer a collective feeling of power and strength that encourages an uncaring fearless attitude. Gangs have a belief that people do things to help themselves rather than for good or honest reasons. They do not care that the things they do might hurt other people, if there is an advantage for them. Gangs show a strong belief in fate and they also believe that somethings cannot be prevented from happening. He even summarized this gang notion as follows ‘when two killers meet, one must die’.

Nott (2010:6) said that the gangsters have made the law of violence and brutality official and a way of everyday life for them. This concurs with standing’s (2015:10) notion that gangs only live for the moment and they have no fear for future consequences since they believe that things happen because they were meant occur.

2.9 Gang territory
Gangs are often territorial. Pinnock (2011:42) refers to a territory as a section of a community that gangs claim to be their own. Claiming a territory means that only the gang to which this territory belongs may run their criminal activities there. These territories usually cover no more than a one-hundred-meter strip of residential blocks or four to five streets. Nott (2010:6) said that gang members feel safe to move around in the communities that are controlled by their own gangs. Controlling a territory ensures that other gangsters do not steal from their customers or their victims who they rely on for survival (Nott, 2010:6)
Gangs would naturally want to expand their territories in order to increase their income in the criminal market. It was also found by Pinnock (2011:43) that territoriality lead to a probability that children who grow up in the gang’s territory will become a member of the gang, therefore a child living in an enemy’s territory is deemed as an enemy.
2.10 Gang warfare
Gangs would resort to fatal destruction in order to protect their territory. Gang wars are a matter of life and death, and the smallest incident can set off a serious conflict that could lead to physical fighting between opposing gangs. Pinnock (2010) said that incidents regarding issues of space ownership, insulting the manhood of a rival gang, walking across the territory of another gang and flirting with a woman or a girlfriend of an opposing gang can set off battles between rival gangs. Added to this Pinnock (2010) noted that battles between rival gangs can range from brief confrontations between a few members of a gang to full scale gang wars. Standing (2015) asserts that when conflict erupts, large number of gangs fight openly using a frightening array of weapons. The result of gang warfare has turned communities into battlegrounds and stray gunshots often claim the lives of innocent bystanders.

2.11 Prevention Efforts
The prevention efforts targeted at limiting youth involvement in gangs is integral to promoting optimal individual and community well-being, specifically in those areas that are susceptible to gang activity. In recent years there has been an emphasis placed on evaluating gang prevention programs to discern effective approaches and providing a more comprehensive approach.

2.11.1 The Comprehensive Gang Model
The comprehensive gang model developed by the OJJDP focuses on community prevention and intervention in balance with law enforcement suppression activities. The model involves five strategies for responding to gang-involved youth and their families. These include:
Community mobilization, the involvement of local citizens, including former gang members and community groups and agencies, and the coordination of programs and staff functions within and across agencies.
Opportunities provision, the development of a variety of specific education, training, and employment programs targeting gang-involved youth.
Social intervention, youth-serving agencies, schools, street outreach workers, grassroots groups, faith-based organizations, law enforcement agencies, and other criminal justice organizations reaching out and acting as links between gang-involved youth and their families, the conventional world, and needed services.
Suppression, formal and informal social control procedures, including close supervision or monitoring of gang youth by agencies of the criminal justice system and also by community-based agencies, schools, and grassroots groups.
Organizational change and development, development and implementation of policies and procedures that result in the most effective use of available and potential resources to better address the gang problem.
An important aspect to implement the Comprehensive Gang Model in a community is to first assess the youth gang problem. This assessment includes collecting quantitative and qualitative data from community representatives such as law enforcement, school faculty, youth, parents, community leaders, probation officers, gang members, grass roots organizations, and local government. Data collected includes the perception of the gang problem as well as what the community consider as priority needs such as tutoring, jobs training, increased police presence, and mentoring for youth.

Properly assessing a community’s gang problem significantly improves the development of an implementation plan. The plan should include goals and objectives based on the assessment findings and should address the five core strategies previously described. The OJJDP comprehensive gang model details the steps required for assessment and provides the necessary data collection tools.

2.11.2 Mentoring
An example of a gang prevention effort that has been widely utilized in the U.S. to promote positive youth development and help rehabilitate youth involved with a gang(s) is mentoring. Mentoring works on the foundation that youth benefit from close, enduring, caring relationships with adults. By providing adult support and guidance through adolescence, mentoring has been found to provide a variety of benefits to both youth and mentors, including the prevention of juvenile delinquency and youth gang involvement.

Mentoring is commonly used in school and after school programs, as well as in the broader community. While mentoring is a strategy that can be used to enhance positive youth development for all youth, it has also been utilized for rehabilitating youth who are already involved with gangs or the juvenile justice system.

2.11.3 Advice and guidance by the school’s counselors
School counselors also play an important role to solve gangsterism problems among teenagers. As we know, teenagers spend their time almost half of their days in school, so that, if school counselors are playing their role as instructor, facilitator and also counselor to their students by giving and organizing some proper and suitable programmes, their students will be have more knowledge and views on bad effects in partaking in gangsterism activities. They will be more attentive that gangsterism will make them suffer and life as a student will become worse if they are punished to be expelled from school.

In other words, only school counselors have a big role and hold the responsibility in creating a good personality in their students’ character.The school counselors must keep in touch with their students who are involved themselves in disciplinary problems because most probably this students might bring themselves in gangsterism cases too. Besides that, the school counselors must try to find ways to avoid gangsterism activities to happen in their school premises. To summarize, if the school counselors are always aware about their students’ activities, the number of teenagers involved in gangsterism will be reduced each day and gangsterism cases can be solved by the advice and guidance by the school counselors.
2.11.4 Strict enforcement by the authorities
Strict enforcement by the authorities also can resolve this gangsterism problem among teenagers. Nowadays, teenagers appear not to have any feeling and are not scared of what they are going to do. So, if the authorities let them know that there are some strict enforcement that will be taken towards the remorse of gangsterism cases, teenagers will think double when they want to be involved in gangsterism because they will know that if they are trapped by the authorities, there will be punishment and strict enforcement ahead for them.

In brief, only strict enforcement by the authorities will make the teenagers feel anxious about being involved in gangsterism. Therefore, authorities must play their role in solving this problem before it gets worse day by day.

2.12 Conclusion
In this chapter the researcher concluded that, gangsterism is caused by many causes and factors. No matter caused by surrounding, parents, friends or media. Gangsterism also brings a lot of negative effects to the teenagers and the society. So, to control these social ill, parents, educators and community should be aware of what is going on among the youths. Though there are various psychological and physical factors that caused a person to choose to become a gang member, so parents or guardians should help them to give their children with love, respect and always to have concerned them to reduce they join gangsterism.

Chapter 3
Research methodology
3.1 Introduction
This chapter mainly focuses on the research methodology in detail. De Vos et al (2005) define research methodology as a description of the specific techniques to be applied, the specific measuring instrument to be used and the specific series of activities to be conducted in making the measurement. Presented in this chapter is the nature of the study, research design, population and location of the study, sampling procedure, data collection method and instrument, data analysis, limitations of the study and ethical considerations.

3.2 Nature of the study
The study is qualitative in nature as the researcher have gathered in depth information in order to understand the effects of gangsterism on teenagers. Qualitative research focuses on how individuals and groups view and understand the world and contrast meaning out of their experiences. According to Maree (2007) qualitative research typically studies people or systems by interacting with and observing the participants in their natural environment. It focuses on the participant’s meanings and interpretations, and its emphasis is on the quality and depth of information and not on the scope or breath of the information provided.

3.3 Research design
According to Mouton (1996) research design can be defined as a set of guidelines and instruments to be followed in addressing the research problem. He added that the main function of the research design is to enable the researcher to anticipate what the appropriate research decisions should be so as to increase the validity of eventual results of the research. Explorative design was used to collect data in this study. Babie and Mouton (2001) defined exploratory research as a social research that explores a certain phenomenon with the primary aim of formulating more detailed research questions relating to that phenomenon.

3.4 Population and location of the study
Mouton (1996) defines population as a collection of objects, events, or individuals who share a common characteristic that the researcher is interested in studying. The study population consisted of 6 teenage boys who are involved in gangsterism as they are the primary focus of the study, 2 parents, as well as 2 teachers from the schools that which the gangsters attend. The researcher believed that the 10 participants would provide relevant information for the study.

The study was conducted at Langeloop village, Nkomazi district, Mpumalanga province in South Africa.

3.5 Sampling procedure
According to De Vos (2005) sampling can be defined as a process of taking a small group of people from a larger group and be used to represent the larger group. The researcher made use of purposive sampling. It is also known as judgement sampling.

Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling technique. It can be defined as the process whereby the researcher selects a sample based on experience or knowledge of the group to be sampled. The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on characteristics of a population that will enable the research participants to answer all the research questions. The researcher selected participants based on the criteria that he/she has set. This type of sampling can only be used when you are confident enough about the representation of the whole population.

3.6 Data collection and instrument
De Vos (2005) stated that data collection methods are procedures specifying techniques to be applied, measuring instruments to be used and activities to take place in implementing a research study. Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variable of interest in an established systematic fashion that allows one to answer the stated research question, and evaluate the outcomes. The goal of data collection is to acquire quality evidence that will translate to rich data analysis.

The researcher has used a semi structured interview as a data collecting tool. A semi structured interview is a method of inquiry that combines a pre-determined set of open questions, questions that prompt discussion with the purpose of the interviewer to explore particular themes or response further. A semi structured interview is used to get a clear picture of the participant’s beliefs and perceptions about a particular topic. It allows for flexibility for both the researcher and the respondent. The interview has enabled the researcher to gain more clarity on the information that was received from the participant during the interview.

The researcher prepared the research questions on an interview schedule. The interview schedule was used to guide the researcher on what type of questions could be asked during the interview. The advantage of semi structured interview is that it enables the researcher to gather more information from the stories that the participants may tell during the interview.

3.7 Data analysis
According to John (1961) data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modelling data with the goal to discover useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis is treated as science and art, and that is because it allows a researcher to use creative, ambiguous and fascinating processes. In this study, the researcher used thematic content analysis to analyze the data from the interviews.

Maree (2007:100) suggested that thematic content analysis is one of the most common forms of analysis in qualitative research. It emphasizes pinpointing, examining, and recording patterns or themes within data. Themes are patterns across data sets that are important to the description of a phenomenon and are associated to a specific research question. The themes become the categories for analysis. Thematic content analysis is performed through the process of coding in six phases to create established, meaningful patterns. These phases are: familiarization with data, generating initial codes, searching for themes among codes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and producing the final report.

3.8 Ethical consideration
According to Bless (2006:140) ethics are set of more principles which are suggested by an individual or group and is subsequently widely accepted. Since research often involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among different people, ethical standards promote the values that are important for collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect and fairness. This study is guided by the following ethics: informed consent, confidentiality, avoidance of harm and to avoid deception of participants.

3.8.1 Informed consent
According to Grinnell ; Unaru (2008:37) informed consent means that the researcher must respect the participants, and they were given the opportunity to choose what shall happen to them since the topic may be sensitive to the respondents. The researcher has informed the participants in a clear language what they were going to be asked to do. The researcher also informed the participants about the risks, and benefits of their participation in the study. The participants were also informed about their rights as participants and also how their information will be used.

The researcher has informed the participants about the nature of the study so that they get a clear understanding of what the study entails. This is considered as the best method of social research. Informed consent implies that all possible information on the goal of the study, the expected time frame for participants’ involvement, and procedures which will be followed during the investigation, possible advantages, disadvantages and dangers to which the participants could be exposed as well as the credibility (Grinnell & Unaru, 2008:37).

3.8.2 Confidentiality
According to Babbie (2007: 27) confidentiality means handling of information in a confidential manner. Which refer to agreement between the researcher and the respondent that limit others access to private information. He added that the researcher will inform the participants that should their identity would be anonymous, and the materials or information discussed during the collection of data for the study will be in a confidential manner.
The researcher ensured that the participants are informed about the purpose of the research, expected duration and procedures, their right to decline to participate and withdraw from the research once participation had begun , the foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing , reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence their willingness to participate such as potential risk, discomfort or adverse effects, any prospective research benefits, limits of confidentiality , incentive for participation and whom to contact for question about the research and research participants rights (Grinnell & Unaru, 2008:37). Informed consent provides opportunity for the prospective participants to ask questions and receive answers. Since the topic entails much on the factors that lead teenagers into joining gangs, the information was confidential.

3.8.3 Avoidance of harm
According to Bless (2006:140) in the context of research ethics, harm may be broadly defined to include extreme physical pain or death, but also involve such factors as psychological stress, personal embarrassment or humiliation or myriad influence that may adversely affect the participants in a significant way. The researcher avoided asking questions that will make the participants to feel uncomfortable.

The fundamental ethical rule of social research was that the study must not bring any harm to the participants (Babbie 2007:27); the researcher weighed the risks against the importance and possible benefits of the specific research project. The researcher had an ethical obligation to project participants within all possible reasonable limits from any form of physical discomfort that they may emerge from harm is a key consideration in any research undertaken.

Such information offered the respondents the opportunity to withdraw from the investigation if they had wished to (Babbie, 2007:27). The researcher identified respondents who could possibly prove vulnerability during the investigation in order to t eliminate them from the study beforehand. Respondent were given assurance that they are indemnified against any emotional harm. The researcher also ensured that the respondents were free from harm, including verbal and nonverbal harm.

3.8.4 Voluntary participation
Voluntariness in consent ensure each participants ability to exercise the power of free choice without the intervention of force, fraud, deceit, duress or other forms of coercion. Participant should always be voluntary, and no one should be forced to participate in a project (Rubin & Babbie 2005:71). The participants were told that their participation is voluntary.

Voluntary participant meant that the participants were allowed to volunteer by themselves and were not forced to participate. The researcher informed participants that they had rights to choose to be in the study and can withdraw from the study at any time during research. Since the topic was too personal, the researcher did not push or force the participant to engage in the research, they were doing it from their own will.

3.8.5 Violation of privacy
Privacy is one of the most important aspects with regards to ethics. The right of an individual to control distribution of personal information, as a rule of thumb, researchers should invade the privacy of participants as minimally as possible (Babbie, 2001). The respondents have the right to privacy and it is his or her rights to decide when, where, to whom and to what extent his or her attitudes, beliefs and behavior will be revealed. The researcher made sure that the participants knew their information of experiences would be used as research results. And except in the study, data will be kept in secret (McBunny, 2001:60).

3.8.6 Debriefing of participants
Debriefing sessions are during which subject get the opportunity, after the study, to work through their experience and its aftermath and where they can have their questions answered and misconceptions removed (Mcburney, 2001: 60). Through debriefing, problems generated by the research experience can be corrected (Babbie, 2001: 475). A research project must always be a learning experience for both participant and researchers. Debriefing sessions are the idea to complete the misperceptions that have risen in the minds of participants of the project.

Conclusion
This chapter was focused on the research methodology. The study is qualitative in nature. Field study was used as a research design. The researcher made use of purposive sampling which is a subtype of non-probability sampling to determine the participants of the study. The researcher also conducted face to face interviews to collect data from the participants. Ethics considered during the data collection process are also presented in this chapter.

Chapter 4
4. Presentation of the findings
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the data collected on the factors that influence teenagers into joining gangs and effects of their involvement in gangsterism. This chapter was necessary to complete this study properly by answering all the research questions in this study. The semi–structured interviews were used where the researcher conducted face to face interviews to collect data from 6 teenage males, two parents and two teachers from Lovunywa Secondary School which is situated at Langeloop village. The teenagers who participated were between the ages of 13 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data.
4.2 The socio-economic background of gangs
The study conducted at Langeloop village shows that the majority of gangs (70%) incarcerated there had poor backgrounds. Only a few (30%) came from middle class families. None were from rich families. Out of the 10 gangsters interviewed, only 3 came from better families, the rest of the 7 others were from poor backgrounds. Most of the teenagers who are involved in gangsterism are from poor families and their education level ranged from none to grade 11.

Because most families where gangsters came from had no employed members, they depended on food donations, social grants or other safety nets. Lack of education also seemed to be a main factor of gangsterism. More than 50 % of the gangster teenagers have dropped out of school while they were still in grade 8. Without education and appropriate skills, the gangsters could not be employed. Given the harsh economic situation they lived in, the only thing they could do to make their lives better was to join gangs and engaging in criminal activities.

4.3 Types of families where gangsters come from
Poverty is a major determinant of gangsterism among teenagers. According to, the us bureau of the census uses a formula for measuring poverty that takes into account family income, size of the family, number of children under the age of 18, and age of the head of the family. On the basis the bureau reported that there were approximately 14 million children under the age of 18 living in poverty in 1999. And the findings of studies by the children defence fund shows that poverty among children is not restricted
These children are vulnerable to a wide variety of problems including poor nutrition, inadequate housing, and physical or emotional abuse. Teenagers from these backgrounds become part of a cycle of low income or unemployment, the president commission on law enforcement and the administration of justice recognized the role of poverty in producing delinquency and noted that the most serious forms of gangs are more prevalent among youths at the lowest socio-economic levels, the fact that poverty is self-perpetuating is a documented fact. Criminal and gang activity may also be an accepted part of the total picture of these deprived children.

4.4 Mass media’s responsibility
Mass media always influenced people. Particularly children and teenagers who have the desire to learn and explore new things, they always get snare with the film they just watched in the television. Impact by mass media should be taken into concern. Mass media must know their limits in publishing something. They must be aware of whatever programmes they want to publish have bad effects or not to the audience especially teenagers who usually like to copy the violent action in the television.
Mass media also can help to solve this gangsterism cases by publishing advertisements on bad effects of gangsterism activities among teenagers. As a result of this action, I’m sure teenagers will keep a far distance from gangsterism activities and they will totally not have any feelings to be involved themselves in that bad activities. They will choose to involve themselves in participating in such a good and beneficial activities like watching a debate or other programmes that beneficial for their studies organized by the mass media. In short, we can conclude that mass media’s responsibility is important in order to solve this crucial problem among teenagers nowadays.

4.5 Negative peer networks
Teenagers face constant pressure to fit in, and they may not have the support they need to avoid pressures to join a gang. Peer influence can come in a form of intimidation, coercion, a dare, harassment, friendly persuasion, or repetitious begging. Peer group is the main reason why gangsterism occur among teenagers because usually teenagers tend to share their problems with their friends rather than discussing with a family member. They feel like friends will understand their feelings better, so whatever their friends do, they will follow them and do it even though it is something bad.
‘I joined a gang because it is not easy to be the only one doing something different. Sometimes i would feel worried that i will be picked on if I don’t go with the crowd, or i lose my friends. Other times i do stuff because my friends are doing it so it seems normal’
4.6 Exposure to violent behaviour
An example can be a child who witnesses his mother being abused by his father. He is already exposed to abuse, harsh and violent behaviour, with corporal punishment as a means of discipline (Huff, 2011). He seeks affirmation outside the home and gets lured into petty crime by the local gang.

Exposure to violence has been linked to antisocial behaviour among teenagers, for example, violence victimization was found to be the single best predictor of juvenile violent behaviours mostly in boys. According to the study findings witnessing violence and victimization were the strongest causes of current violent behaviour such as involvement in fights and carrying of weapons.

4.7 A desire for protection
Communities with high gang activity often see young people join gangs just to survive. Based on the findings of the study, it is often easier to join the gang than to remain vulnerable and unprotected in their neighbourhood.

‘Joining a gang provided me with better protection from violence and attack from rival gangs because you know the brotherhood has your back’
Chapter 5
5.1 introduction
This chapter is about findings and recommendations. The researcher interpreted the findings in line with the reviewed literature. The discussion of the findings is in line with major research questions. This chapter gives the limitations and the implications of the study, the conclusion of the study, and recommendations by the researcher.

5.2 Study Limitations
The study was conducted at Langeloop village in Mpumalanga outside Malalane town. The data was collected from a sample of 7 males who are between the ages of 13 to 19 who are involved in gangsterism. The findings of this study can hardly be generalized to other geographic areas. Each community and, certainly, each gang has its own different factors that persuade their involvement.

It also should be noted that the results were self-reported. It is possible that gang membership itself was underreported or over reported in the study. However, self-reported data have been used broadly in gang studies to verify gang membership, and (2007) determined that self-identification is a highly consistent indicator of gang membership.

5.3 Implications of the study
To help communities engage in prevention activities effectively, it is important to understand the role joining a gang may play in affecting an adolescent’s life course. Researchers and the community mostly regard gang membership only in the context of adolescence and, frequently, only in terms of involvement in crime and delinquency. The researcher found that adolescent gang membership has long-term consequences that extend beyond criminal activity, indicating that gang membership may have implications for public safety beyond personal harm.

The findings suggest that effective gang prevention efforts may result not only in reductions in adolescent problem behaviour but also in higher adult functioning across multiple domains. The researcher hopes that the results of this study will provide motivation for prevention scientists to develop, implement, and test effective programs to prevent young people from joining gangs.

5.4 Conclusion
Based on the study done, the researcher concluded that there is a great necessity to give more attention towards cases that are related to young delinquents who involve themselves in gangsterism. This problem need to be dealt with wisely to ensure that their future will not be compromised because of their involvement in gangsterism. Thus, parents, government, and society have to play their roles effectively in order to curb the spreading of gangsterism among teenagers. In addition, need to realize the consequence by each action or behaviour which taken by them. They have to be aware that each behaviour that deviant and forbidden to the law will cause them to be punished. As for parents, they need to give full attention to their children and guide them to the right path before things get worse and difficult to handle.

5.5 Recommendations
5.5.1 The Home
Parents must be educated on how to spot the signs of gang association, and how to work with their children to make gangs seem less glamorous. Parents must teach their children that joining a gang can ruin lives; lead to criminal records; and, ultimately, to prison. Most importantly, parents need to recognize the signs that their child is involved in a gang and seek the appropriate intervention.

Families need help to deal with their children who are at risk of joining gangs. Training in parental skills gives these parents the knowledge and ability to help their children stay out of trouble. Parents often tend to react strongly to the gang problem; therefore, the information provided to them must be balanced with helpful, hopeful strategies that they can use to turn their children away from gangs. Most law enforcement, school, and community-based providers agree that educating parents about gangs is necessary and critical if the growth of gangs is to be curbed. Law enforcement and educators need to work together to develop the necessary tools and materials to educate parents.

5.5.2 The School
In an attempt to keep gang problems under control, school programs should focus on identifying gang members, removing graffiti, resolving potential conflicts among gang members, and providing parents with information on gangs. Many schools today have strict dress codes to prevent the wearing of gang colours. Schools should have increased security and close their campuses to limit gang members from recruiting students. In some instances, schools should also use metal detectors to screen weapons at outdoor stadiums and after-school sporting events.

5.5.3 Community
Society also is one of the important elements to curb this matter. The society should provide information to the police, and by so doing, they automatically help the enforcer task to deal with gangsterism. With the cooperation from each member in the country, there is a high possibility that this social illness will finally find its remedy.

5.5.4 Intervention
Intervention is a very big part of reducing gang involvement. Stressed the importance of intervention because without it gang involvement will only reduce to a certain point. Father Boyle explained this very clearly. He commented that intervention is not focused on enough. The reason intervention is so important is that when kids grow up they will see all the people in gangs. The people in these gangs might be people these kids look up to, like brothers or other relatives. If better intervention programs are set up then hopefully, gang members will take advantage of their opportunity and quit being involved with gangs.
When gang members start leaving their gangs kids will see what is going on, will see how the gang hurt that individual’s potential for success, and will decide that gang involvement is not so glamorous and cool. Father Boyle works with the idea of intervention by getting jobs for gang members. He sets rules that they have to abide by to keep their jobs, which includes no gang banging and other gang related activities. He is trying to restore something that most gang members have lost, which is hope.

5.5.5 Enforcement
Enforcement is the thing that needs to be focused on the most by police and the government. It is something that community members want to see most from the law enforcement department. Therefore, government need to strict and regulate the available law, so teenager will be afraid to engage in gangsterism.

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INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR FACE TO FACE INTERVIEWSDemographic information
GENDER
AGE
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS
YOUTHWhat do you understand about the concept gangsterism?
What lead you to join a gang?
Please honestly estimate the time you spend with your gangs in hours per day, and the activities that you usually do.

When did you first become a gang member?
Can you say gangsterism does affect you and other youth at Langeloop village negatively? If yes Please explain how and if you say no also tell why you say so.

What do you think can be done to control the negative influence of gangs on youth at Langeloop village?
PARENTS
Can you say gangsterism has a negative influence on teenagers at Langeloop village? If yes please explain how.

Please share the negative impacts you notice on your children (14-35).

What factors do you think influence to most teenagers joining gangs? Please explain briefly.

What do you think can be done to solve the problem of teenage gangs at Langeloop village?
TEACHERS
Can you say gangs have a negative influence on teenagers academically? If yes please explain how.

Have you ever seen a learner being violent in class or within the school premises? If yes please tell what you did and why.

What do you think can be done to control the negative influence of gangs on youth at Langeloop village?
The consent form
My contact number: 0724778802
Dear participant,
My name is Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane. I am a Youth in Development student at the University of Venda. The research study is on the factors that lead teenagers into gangsterism. As part of this study, I am expected to collect data from identified participants and that includes you. During the data collection, the researcher will make use of an interview schedule.
You are kindly invited to be a participant in this study. The session will take approximately one and half hours. You are kindly requested to read and sign the informed consent provided to you. The participation in this study is voluntary and anonymous.
Thanking you in anticipation.

Nelisiwe Mondlane
YID Student
University of Venda
Signature: _______________________
Date: ___________________________
Declaration of consent
I, hereby give permission to voluntarily participate in this research study with the following understanding:
• The YID Student, Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane, from University of Venda is conducting the research. • The research forms full requirements for Bachelor of Arts, Youth in Development
• Information will be collected by means of interview schedules.

My rights as the participant:
• I cannot be forced to participate in this study.

• I have the right to withdraw from the study at any given time.

• I have the right to decline to answer any question (s) I am not comfortable with.

• I will remain anonymous and my name and identity will be kept from public knowledge.

• Any information I reveal during the process of this study shall remain confidential, shall only be used for the purposes of this research and for publication in Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane’s dissertation.

• I grant permission for any information I reveal during the interview process, with the understanding that data collected will remain in possession of the interviewer, Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane and her supervisor.

• The identification particulars such as surnames and names will be kept securely safe in Nelisiwe Bridget Mondlane’s office and thereafter the list will be destroyed.
Signature Participant: ________________________
Date: ____________________

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