1 Introduction During the consolidation of this report I chose existing city which is Bloemfontein city and the reason why I chose Bloemfontein is because I noticed that the is room for improvement in this city

1 Introduction
During the consolidation of this report I chose existing city which is Bloemfontein city and the reason why I chose Bloemfontein is because I noticed that the is room for improvement in this city, moreover Bloemfontein is centrally located and it joins big cities together such as cape town and Johannesburg through N1
1.1 problem statement
This report services to outline baseline analysis of a plan and development of a sustainable housing neighborhood in a Bloemfontein city. This also shows how a new suburb can be located without harming the environment and existing community. This report was compiled using urban planning and design principles.

1.2 general findings
Bloemfontein is one of the biggest cities in South Africa and is ranked to be in the sixth position. Bloemfontein is the capital city of Free State, is a city that is situated in Free State province in the Mangaung Metropolitan municipality. Since Bloemfontein is a city according to South African standards therefore it is a place of both living and work, again there are no agricultural activities within the solid area of Bloemfontein. It has population of 463064 people and it covers an area of 236.17Km2. Population density is 2132.27 per Km2 and houses holds density is 355.19 per km2. It is currently expanding and growing. Neighborhoods and suburbs, water demand and supply, as well as transport facilities they remain a serious issue as the population in Bloemfontein is increasing drastically.

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Drawing on a detailed analysis of Bloemfontein neighborhoods and suburbs, the researchers shows that post-apartheid neighborhoods and suburbs are very different and fragmented urban spaces that are used for many different functions. Therefore our conceptual understanding of neighborhoods and suburbs has to be amended from the one that shows homogeneous residential urban areas to the one that accommodate diverse range of urban functions.
Bloemfontein is a city that is full of services from secondary sectors to tertiary sectors. Secondary sector Include things like manufacturing, industries, mining, etc whereas tertiary include things like EDUCATION, service, commerce, etc. availability of all this services resulted in people moving from rural areas to Bloemfontein city, many people came to this city because of different pulling factors but they ended up turning to be students. Some people came in to this city for the purpose of working but while working they decided to study so that they can get recognition at work

1.3 Objective

The main aim of this study is to contribute towards gaining greater insight into the development of the Bloemfontein neighbourhoods and suburbs and In accomplishing that, assessment of the existing houses and related infrastructure scenarios in a Bloemfontein city were conducted. This also serves to outline how sustainable development in such aspects of the city can be achieved. So in this regard houses, transport facilities, water supply and electricity were chosen to be assessed because of complexity of Bloemfontein city and high population growth rate.

In this study primary data as well as secondary data were used in order to improve the neighbourhoods in the city of Bloemfontein. The housing survey was conducted as primary data on all housing parameters in the whole city of Bloemfontein, interviews was also part of primary data collection. Secondary data was also used which include things like online survey sourced from various departments like municipality data, census organisations, etc.
2. Background

In Bloemfontein array of other concerns have overshadowed neighborhoods and suburbs studies. As Marbin(2005:3) recorded in his writings in seminal contributions focused on suburban developments that: In the pasts suburbs were silent present in the widely spread models of the apartheid city. Attention to the pattern of the city has shown little comprehension processes and that resulted in further changing the suburbs. As in the nineteenth century geographical exploration, other parts of the city were perceived as terra incognita and set out to be explored, whilst the anthropology of people’s territory was also ignored. South Africa is one of the countries that doesn’t do enough investigations about the practices of private developers whose activities generated suburbs. In other words how the suburb is generated is now assumed not understood.

The ramification of the post apartheid inner city and its polar opposite in a way of generating edge cities has been given considerable research attention. In South African tradition and not at least in the academic reports of the past two decades, there has been an on-going investigation about neighborhood histories regarding sites of forced removal such as Sophia-town and district six in addition to the progress of the township. Though the investigations that have been made so far are presented focusing on neighborhoods, they are invariably used as spatial units of analysis in order to gain more insight about specific urban processes namely gentrification, desegregation, crime and walled communities. Indeed only small portion of researches have explored nice former white neighborhoods.
3 Demarcation of study area

The picture shows the portion of Bloemfontein city that was covered during the analysis.

FIGURE 3: SHOWS CITY OF BLOEMFONTIEN

4. Glossary

• Neighborhood
Is a community within a large city or town.
• Suburb
Is an area that is located at the edge of the urban city.
• Population
It is the group of individuals occupying a particular geographic area bearing in minds that those individuals are of the same species.
• Primary data
This is the data that I personally collected for the purpose of this report. It includes things like interview that I conducted in order to know challenges that people encounter. During the collection of primary data I also made houses evaluation.

• Secondary data
Is the data that was not collected by me, this is online survey, I sourced it from internet as well as other governments departments(municipality), it was also collected from Bloemfontein higher educational institutions and organizational records. This is the data that was collected for other research purposes.

• Optimization
It is the act of making best use of resources

• Forecasting
It is the phenomena of predicting future population by making use of pasts and present data.

• Low income class
A household of about 4 people that earns R86000 or less per annum

• Middle income class
A household of about 4 people that earns between R86000-R1.48million per annum

• High income class
A household of about 4 people that earns income more than R1.48million per annum.

5. Key assumptions and projections

Getting the exact size of the population was bit difficult since this city is full of people who are not permanently staying in it, most of the people who are staying in town are renting and came in Bloemfontein for the purpose of either studying or working. Therefore this study is based on precisions. Since a city is very flexible an you never know what is going to happen in future so is advisable to plan and design for the worst cases.

The duration between Current student population and forecasted student population is in a foreseeable period of 10 years.

Population growth is calculated yearly and remains the same for the whole year.

Assumptions made for forecasting the future demand.
– Growth or decline in population is through the interaction of these following demo-graphic factors namely: migration, birth rate and death rate.

– Growth or decline in population for the past 10 years would behave in the same manner for the next coming 10 years.

– Population increase at the constant rate

6. Methods
6.1 Methodology
During the consolidation of this study two phases were conferred, which is literature review as well as empirical analysis. I started first with literature review and then after that I went to empirical study analysis.

Primary data as well as secondary data were collected in order to tackle the existing problem. Primary data was more focused on original sources like interviews and manual surveys. The community houses and life style (urbanism) survey were conducted as part of primary data on all urban housing parameters in the whole city of Bloemfontein; interviews were also conducted during the collection of primary data.

Secondary data was also collected and used; secondary data includes things like online survey sourced from various departments like municipality data, Bloemfontein tertiary institutions data, census organisations, etc.

The following steps were used to constitute the procedure for collection of data:
• I organised resources and i even went to national real estate agency to get a booklet that shows the locations of their private property in the city of Bloemfontein.

• Before i start with my interview for survey i prepared a questionnaire and i asked community people to complete that questionnaire.

• I used all kinds of survey methods and survey techniques.

• After that i evaluated the existing neighbourhoods in a city.

• Drawing sample of existing neighbourhoods with adjustments, when done i then planned the new suburb of 30000 people that needs to be located in the city.

• Secondary data was collected and studied.

• Data analysis.

• Integration of research findings.

• Discussion of Limitations and conclusion of the study took place.

• Lastly recommendations of the study were made.

6.2 Study Analysis

In each and every township of Bloemfontein city I interviewed more than five people which were chosen randomly. During the survey various survey techniques were used namely simple random sampling, systematic sampling, probability proportional to size sampling, matched sampling, cluster sampling, accidental sampling and event sampling. During the analysis three categories of income people classes were catered namely low income, middle class income and high class income. In the city of Bloemfontein each every low income dwelling unit has approximately 7 people, middle class income are approximately 6 in one dwelling unit and high class income people are approximately 5 in one dwelling unit. In general, each and every dwelling unit has full capacity of 7 people. 190 people participated in an interview and they were chosen randomly from all those three categories.

Each and every one of 190 participants had to complete a questionnaire and answers to that questionnaire were mostly yes, no, good, average and bad.

My questionnaire went like this:
Are you happy to stay where you are staying right now?
Are you happy of the life style of your neighborhood?
Would you like to move out of your current neighborhood?
How is water supply in this area?
Is public transport available in this area?
How would you describe road conditions in this area?
How is safety in this area?
Is the space of your rooms big enough?
Does this area have enough shopping center facilities?
Does this area have enough public center facilities?
Is this area clean enough?
How are weather conditions in this area?
Has earthquake ever stroked this place?
How is electricity consumption in your complex?
What are the most important factors to you when buying or building a house?
What changes would you like to see in your neighborhood?
Do you love Bloemfontein city?

The types of questions in my questionnaire are more general questions about the services and quality of life in general. The reason is because I wanted to focus on factors that can be improved in general to make life better for everybody in the community and try to come up with a new smart neighbourhood.

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